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Review

Antimicrobials and Food-Related Stresses as Selective Factors for Antibiotic Resistance along the Farm to Fork Continuum

1
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Ozzano Emilia, 40064 Bologna, Italy
2
Infectious Diseases Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan 49178-67439, Iran
3
CICS-UBI-Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade da Beira Interior, 6200-506 Covilhã, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Rodríguez-Lázaro
Antibiotics 2021, 10(6), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060671
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 29 May 2021 / Accepted: 1 June 2021 / Published: 4 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From Farm to Fork)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem and there has been growing concern associated with its widespread along the animal–human–environment interface. The farm-to-fork continuum was highlighted as a possible reservoir of AMR, and a hotspot for the emergence and spread of AMR. However, the extent of the role of non-antibiotic antimicrobials and other food-related stresses as selective factors is still in need of clarification. This review addresses the use of non-antibiotic stressors, such as antimicrobials, food-processing treatments, or even novel approaches to ensure food safety, as potential drivers for resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. The co-selection and cross-adaptation events are covered, which may induce a decreased susceptibility of foodborne bacteria to antibiotics. Although the available studies address the complexity involved in these phenomena, further studies are needed to help better understand the real risk of using food-chain-related stressors, and possibly to allow the establishment of early warnings of potential resistance mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; food chain; stressors; cross-resistance; adaptive response antimicrobial resistance; food chain; stressors; cross-resistance; adaptive response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giacometti, F.; Shirzad-Aski, H.; Ferreira, S. Antimicrobials and Food-Related Stresses as Selective Factors for Antibiotic Resistance along the Farm to Fork Continuum. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 671. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060671

AMA Style

Giacometti F, Shirzad-Aski H, Ferreira S. Antimicrobials and Food-Related Stresses as Selective Factors for Antibiotic Resistance along the Farm to Fork Continuum. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(6):671. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060671

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giacometti, Federica, Hesamaddin Shirzad-Aski, and Susana Ferreira. 2021. "Antimicrobials and Food-Related Stresses as Selective Factors for Antibiotic Resistance along the Farm to Fork Continuum" Antibiotics 10, no. 6: 671. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060671

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