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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070454

Effects of Sample Preparation on Particle Size Distributions of Different Types of Silica in Suspensions

1
Research Group Mechanical Process Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering and Environmental Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, Münchner Platz 3, D-01062 Dresden, Germany
2
Evonik Resource Efficiency GmbH, Brühler Straße 2, 50389 Wesseling, Germany
3
IBE R&D Institute for Lung Health gGmbH, Mendelstr 11, D-48149 Münster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

The granulometric characterization of synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) nanomaterials (NMs) still demands harmonized standard operation procedures. SAS is produced as either precipitated, fumed (pyrogenic), gel and colloidal SAS and these qualities differ, among others, with respect to their state of aggregation and aggregate strength. The reproducible production of suspensions from SAS, e.g., for biological testing purposes, demands a reasonable amount of dispersing energy. Using materials representative for each of the types of SAS, we employed ultrasonic dispersing (USD) at energy densities of 8–1440 J/mL and measured resulting particle sizes by dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction. In this energy range, USD had no significant impact on particle size distributions of colloidal and gel SAS, but clearly decreased the particle size of precipitated and fumed SAS. For high energy densities, we observed a considerable contamination of SAS suspensions with metal particles caused by abrasion of the sonotrode’s tip. To avoid this problem, the energy density was limited to 270 J/mL and remaining coarse particles were removed with size-selective filtration. The ultrasonic dispersion of SAS at medium levels of energy density is suggested as a reasonable compromise to produce SAS suspensions for toxicological in vitro testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanomaterials (NMs); nanostructured; synthetic amorphous silica (SAS); ultrasonic dispersing (USD); energy density; sample preparation; in vitro testing nanomaterials (NMs); nanostructured; synthetic amorphous silica (SAS); ultrasonic dispersing (USD); energy density; sample preparation; in vitro testing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Retamal Marín, R.R.; Babick, F.; Lindner, G.-G.; Wiemann, M.; Stintz, M. Effects of Sample Preparation on Particle Size Distributions of Different Types of Silica in Suspensions. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 454.

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