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Open AccessArticle

Development of Polythiourethane/ZnO-Based Anti-Fouling Materials and Evaluation of the Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata Using Single-Cell Force Spectroscopy

1
Functional Nanomaterials, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, 24143 Kiel, Germany
2
LAAS-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, 31400 Toulouse, France
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TBI, Université de Toulouse, INSA, INRAE, CNRS, 31400 Toulouse, France
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Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences (iBB), Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
5
CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, 31400 Toulouse, France
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Fédération de Recherche Fermat, CNRS, 31000 Toulouse, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonios Kelarakis
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020271
Received: 14 December 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanics: From Theory to Application)
The attachment of bacteria and other microbes to natural and artificial surfaces leads to the development of biofilms, which can further cause nosocomial infections. Thus, an important field of research is the development of new materials capable of preventing the initial adhesion of pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, novel polymer/particle composite materials, based on a polythiourethane (PTU) matrix and either spherical (s-ZnO) or tetrapodal (t-ZnO) shaped ZnO fillers, were developed and characterized with respect to their mechanical, chemical and surface properties. To then evaluate their potential as anti-fouling surfaces, the adhesion of two different pathogenic microorganism species, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata, was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results show that the adhesion of both S. aureus and C. glabrata to PTU and PTU/ZnO is decreased compared to a model surface polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). It was furthermore found that the amount of both s-ZnO and t-ZnO filler had a direct influence on the adhesion of S. aureus, as increasing amounts of ZnO particles resulted in reduced adhesion of the cells. For both microorganisms, material composites with 5 wt.% of t-ZnO particles showed the greatest potential for anti-fouling with significantly decreased adhesion of cells. Altogether, both pathogens exhibit a reduced capacity to adhere to the newly developed nanomaterials used in this study, thus showing their potential for bio-medical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: polythiourethane; tetrapodal shaped ZnO; PTU/ZnO composite; microbial adhesion; initial attachment; S. aureus; C. glabrata; single cell force spectroscopy; anti-fouling polythiourethane; tetrapodal shaped ZnO; PTU/ZnO composite; microbial adhesion; initial attachment; S. aureus; C. glabrata; single cell force spectroscopy; anti-fouling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Klemm, S.; Baum, M.; Qiu, H.; Nan, Z.; Cavalheiro, M.; Teixeira, M.C.; Tendero, C.; Gapeeva, A.; Adelung, R.; Dague, E.; Castelain, M.; Formosa-Dague, C. Development of Polythiourethane/ZnO-Based Anti-Fouling Materials and Evaluation of the Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata Using Single-Cell Force Spectroscopy. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 271. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020271

AMA Style

Klemm S, Baum M, Qiu H, Nan Z, Cavalheiro M, Teixeira MC, Tendero C, Gapeeva A, Adelung R, Dague E, Castelain M, Formosa-Dague C. Development of Polythiourethane/ZnO-Based Anti-Fouling Materials and Evaluation of the Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata Using Single-Cell Force Spectroscopy. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(2):271. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020271

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klemm, Sophie; Baum, Martina; Qiu, Haoyi; Nan, Zibin; Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel C.; Tendero, Claire; Gapeeva, Anna; Adelung, Rainer; Dague, Etienne; Castelain, Mickaël; Formosa-Dague, Cécile. 2021. "Development of Polythiourethane/ZnO-Based Anti-Fouling Materials and Evaluation of the Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata Using Single-Cell Force Spectroscopy" Nanomaterials 11, no. 2: 271. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020271

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