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Titanium-Doped P-Type WO3 Thin Films for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Detection

1
Key Laboratory of Functional Materials of Chongqing, School of Physics & Information Technology, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047, China
2
Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040727
Received: 21 February 2020 / Revised: 21 March 2020 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published: 11 April 2020
Gas sensors are an important part of smart homes in the era of the Internet of Things. In this work, we studied Ti-doped P-type WO3 thin films for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensors. Ti-doped tungsten oxide films were deposited on glass substrates by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering from a W-Ti alloy target at room temperature. After annealing at 450 °C in N2 ambient for 60 min, p-type Ti-doped WO3 was achieved for the first time. The measurement of the room temperature Hall-effect shows that the film has a resistivity of 5.223 × 103 Ωcm, a hole concentration of 9.227 × 1012 cm−3, and mobility of 1.295 × 102 cm2V−1s−1. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses reveal that the substitution of W6+ with Ti4+ resulted in p-type conductance. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the films consist of densely packed nanoparticles. The transmittance of the p-type films is between 72% and 84% in the visible spectra and the optical bandgap is 3.28 eV. The resistance increased when the films were exposed to the reducing gas of liquefied petroleum gas, further confirming the p-type conduction of the films. The p-type films have a quick response and recovery behavior to LPG. View Full-Text
Keywords: WO3; p-type semiconductor; Ti-doped; LPG gas-sensing WO3; p-type semiconductor; Ti-doped; LPG gas-sensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, Y.; Shi, X.; Chen, K.; Yang, X.; Chen, J. Titanium-Doped P-Type WO3 Thin Films for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Detection. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 727.

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