Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 9, Issue 2 (June 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Persistence of microorganisms in dentinal tubules after root canal chemo–mechanical preparation is [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-14
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Uniquely-Processed Titanium on Balance and Walking Performance in Healthy Older Adults
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020039
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
Viewed by 1294 | PDF Full-text (2671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increased risk of falls associated with advancing age has increased demand for methods to improve balance and mobility. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether wearing Aqua Titan-treated stockings could improve balance and walking performance in an older population;
[...] Read more.
The increased risk of falls associated with advancing age has increased demand for methods to improve balance and mobility. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether wearing Aqua Titan-treated stockings could improve balance and walking performance in an older population; secondary was to elucidate the mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind crossover, 16 healthy older adults (age, 67.9 ± 4.2 years; BMI, 24.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2) performed two 4-day trials composed of baseline measures and fatiguing exercise on Day 1, with recovery measures at 14, 38 and 62 h post-exercise, wearing Aqua Titan and control stockings. Balance, walking performance, triceps surae stretch reflex, ankle range of motion and gastrocnemius muscle microvascular perfusion, blood flow and oxygen consumption were measured at baseline and during recovery. Aqua Titan had no effect on the microvascular parameters, but increased total ankle range of motion at 38 h (2.4°; 95% CI ± 1.8°) and 62 h (2.7°; ±1.7°), contributed to by increases in dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. There was decreasing persistence in the medial-lateral center of pressure movement at 38 h (q = 0, −0.0635 ± 0.0455), compared to control stockings. Aqua Titan garments hold potential for improving balance and mobility in older adults in the days following a bout of fatiguing exercise. The proposed mechanisms associated with enhanced sensory feedback require further exploration. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessRetraction Retraction: Azuma, K. et al. Chitin, Chitosan, and Its Derivatives for Wound Healing: Old and New Materials. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 104–142
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020038
Received: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1251 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Journal of Functional Biomaterials Editorial Office have been made aware that some parts of the article [1] are duplicated from other publications[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Mechanical Behavior Optimization of Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Shells as a Sustainable Material for Shopping Bags
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020037
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Viewed by 1413 | PDF Full-text (1688 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of biodegradable materials for shopping bag production, and other products made from plastics, has recently been an object of intense research—with the aim of reducing the environmental burdens given by conventional materials. Chitosan is a potential material because of its biocompatibility,
[...] Read more.
The use of biodegradable materials for shopping bag production, and other products made from plastics, has recently been an object of intense research—with the aim of reducing the environmental burdens given by conventional materials. Chitosan is a potential material because of its biocompatibility, degradability, and non-toxicity. It is a semi-natural biopolymeric material produced by the deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most abundant natural biopolymer (after cellulose). Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of insects, marine crustaceans, and the cell walls of certain fungi and algae. The raw materials most abundantly available are the shells of crab, shrimp, and prawn. Hence, in this study chitosan was selected as one of the main components of biodegradable materials used for shopping bag production. Firstly, chitin was extracted from shrimp shell waste and then converted to chitosan. The chitosan was next ground to a powder. Although, currently, polyethylene bags are prepared by blown extrusion, in this preliminary research the chitosan powder was dissolved in a solvent and the films were cast. Composite films with several fillers were used as a reinforcement at different dosages to optimize mechanical properties, which have been assessed using tensile tests. These results were compared with those of conventional polyethylene bags used in Egypt. Overall, the chitosan films were found to have a lower ductility but appeared to be strong enough to fulfill shopping bag functions. The addition of fillers, such as chitin whiskers and rice straw, enhanced the mechanical properties of chitosan films, while the addition of chitin worsened overall mechanical behavior. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Encapsulation and Characterization of Gentamicin Sulfate in the Collagen Added Electrospun Nanofibers for Skin Regeneration
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020036
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
Viewed by 1514 | PDF Full-text (2075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current practice, the clinical use of conventional skin substitutes such as autogenous skin grafts have shown several problems, mainly with respect to limited sources and donor site morbidity. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of smart synthetic biomaterials is
[...] Read more.
In the current practice, the clinical use of conventional skin substitutes such as autogenous skin grafts have shown several problems, mainly with respect to limited sources and donor site morbidity. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of smart synthetic biomaterials is tremendously diffusing as skin substitutes. Indeed, engineered skin grafts or analogues frequently play an important role in the treatment of chronic skin wounds, by supporting the regeneration of newly formed tissue, and at the same time preventing infections during the long-term treatment. In this context, natural proteins such as collagen—natively present in the skin tissue—embedded in synthetic polymers (i.e., PCL) allow the development of micro-structured matrices able to mimic the functions and to structure of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Moreover, the encapsulation of drugs, such as gentamicin sulfate, also improves the bioactivity of nanofibers, due to the efficient loading and a controlled drug release towards the site of interest. Herein, we have done a preliminary investigation on the capability of gentamicin sulfate, loaded into collagen-added nanofibers, for the controlled release in local infection treatments. Experimental studies have demonstrated that collagen added fibers can be efficaciously used to administrate gentamicin for 72 h without any toxic in vitro response, thus emerging as a valid candidate for the therapeutic treatment of infected wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Materials for Drug Delivery)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication Carbon Dots Doped with Dysprosium: A Bimodal Nanoprobe for MRI and Fluorescence Imaging
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020035
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
Viewed by 1747 | PDF Full-text (823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, functional nanoprobes with multiple imaging modalities have become an emerging field of biomedical research. In this preliminary study, we utilized a facile hydrothermal method for the preparation of magneto-fluorescent bimodal carbon dots doped with dysprosium (Dy-CDs). The prepared Dy-CDs have
[...] Read more.
In recent years, functional nanoprobes with multiple imaging modalities have become an emerging field of biomedical research. In this preliminary study, we utilized a facile hydrothermal method for the preparation of magneto-fluorescent bimodal carbon dots doped with dysprosium (Dy-CDs). The prepared Dy-CDs have shown a good colloidal stability in a water solution and strong blue–green fluorescence, with a maximum at 452 nm. In addition, the excellent transverse relaxivity of the prepared Dy-CDs (r2 = 7.42 ± 0.07 mM−1s−1) makes them also suitable for T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus, synthesized Dy-CDs could be potentially utilized for both MRI and fluorescence imaging of living cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Healthcare)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Honey, Wound Repair and Regenerative Medicine
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020034
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
Viewed by 2134 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Honey possesses anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and other properties that are useful for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Furthermore, honey has been used for millennia in folk medicine. The misuse of antibiotics has again boosted the use of honey in regenerative medicine. The multifaceted properties
[...] Read more.
Honey possesses anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and other properties that are useful for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Furthermore, honey has been used for millennia in folk medicine. The misuse of antibiotics has again boosted the use of honey in regenerative medicine. The multifaceted properties of honey could possibly be exploited for scaffold applications in tissue healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of Injectable Hydrogels with Varying Collagen–Chitosan–Thymosin β4 Composition for Myocardial Infarction Therapy
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020033
Received: 24 December 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 March 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
Viewed by 1859 | PDF Full-text (3195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thirty percent of global mortalities are caused by cardiovascular disease, and 54% of the aforementioned amount is instigated by ischemic heart disease that triggered myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction is due to blood flow cessation in certain coronary arteries that causes lack of oxygen
[...] Read more.
Thirty percent of global mortalities are caused by cardiovascular disease, and 54% of the aforementioned amount is instigated by ischemic heart disease that triggered myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction is due to blood flow cessation in certain coronary arteries that causes lack of oxygen (ischemia) and stimulates myocardial necrosis. One of the methods to treat myocardial infarction consists in injecting cells or active biomolecules and biomaterials into heart infarction locations. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of a collagen–chitosan-based hydrogel with variations in its chitosan composition. The prepared hydrogels contained thymosin β4 (Tβ4), a 43-amino acid peptide with angiogenic and cardioprotective properties which can act as a bioactive molecule for the treatment of myocardial infarction. A morphological structure analysis showed that the hydrogels lacked interconnecting pores. All samples were not toxic on the basis of a cytotoxicity test. A histopathological anatomy test showed that the collagen–chitosan–thymosin β4 hydrogels could stimulate angiogenesis and epicardial heart cell migration, as demonstrated by the evaluation of the number of blood vessels and the infiltration extent of myofibroblasts. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Poly-L-lactic Acid (PLLA)-Chitosan-Collagen Electrospun Tube for Vascular Graft Application
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020032
Received: 24 December 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
Viewed by 2102 | PDF Full-text (4054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poly-L-Lactic acid (PLLA) blended with chitosan and collagen was used to fabricate a conduit for blood vessel engineering through an electrospinning process. Various concentrations of chitosan were used in the blend in order to study its effect on the morphology, chemical bond, tensile
[...] Read more.
Poly-L-Lactic acid (PLLA) blended with chitosan and collagen was used to fabricate a conduit for blood vessel engineering through an electrospinning process. Various concentrations of chitosan were used in the blend in order to study its effect on the morphology, chemical bond, tensile strength, burst pressure, hemocompatibility, and cell viability (cytotoxicity) of the tube.In vitro assessments indicated that addition of chitosan-collagen could improve cell viability and hemocompatibility. Best results were demonstrated by the conduit with 10% PLLA, 0.5% chitosan, and 1% collagen. Tensile strength reached 2.13 MPa and burst pressure reached 2593 mmHg, both values that are within the range value of native blood vessel. A hemolysis percentage of 1.04% and a cell viability of 86.2% were obtained, meeting the standards of high hemocompatibility and low cytotoxicity for vascular graft material. The results are promising for further development toward vascular graft application. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Nail Properties and Bone Health: A Review
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020031
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
Viewed by 1816 | PDF Full-text (1883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physicochemical properties of nail may offer valuable insight into the health of bone. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard technique for evaluating bone health through bone mineral density (BMD). However, only 70% of fractures are explained by low BMD according
[...] Read more.
Physicochemical properties of nail may offer valuable insight into the health of bone. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard technique for evaluating bone health through bone mineral density (BMD). However, only 70% of fractures are explained by low BMD according to DXA. Therefore, the World Health Organisation recommended the need for the development of alternative methods of assessing bone health. Keratin and collagen type I are major proteins in nail and bone, respectively. Both of these proteins undergo post-translational modifications, with a possible correlation between the degree of post-translational modifications in keratin and collagen. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to detect changes in protein composition and structure. As changes in protein function and structure may be associated with the development of osteoporosis, Raman spectroscopy may be a valuable adjunct to assess bone health and fracture risk. This review critically evaluates various methods and techniques to identify the link between nail properties and bone health. The strengths and limitations of various studies and the potential use of nail protein and minerals to evaluate bone health have been also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Growing Neural PC-12 Cell on Crosslinked Silica Aerogels Increases Neurite Extension in the Presence of an Electric Field
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020030
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
Viewed by 1959 | PDF Full-text (5457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Externally applied electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance the nerve regeneration process and to influence the directionality of neurite outgrowth. In addition, the physical and chemical properties of the substrate used for nerve-cell regeneration is critical in fostering regeneration. Previously, we
[...] Read more.
Externally applied electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance the nerve regeneration process and to influence the directionality of neurite outgrowth. In addition, the physical and chemical properties of the substrate used for nerve-cell regeneration is critical in fostering regeneration. Previously, we have shown that polyurea-crosslinked silica aerogels (PCSA) exert a positive influence on the extension of neurites by PC-12 cells, a cell-line model widely used to study neurite extension and electrical excitability. In this work, we have examined how an externally applied electric field (EF) influences the extension of neurites in PC-12 cells grown on two substrates: collagen-coated dishes versus collagen-coated crosslinked silica aerogels. The externally applied direct current (DC) bias was applied in vitro using a custom-designed chamber containing polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) embedded copper electrodes to create an electric field across the substrate for the cultured PC-12 cells. Results suggest orientation preference towards the anode, and, on average, longer neurites in the presence of the applied DC bias than with 0 V DC bias. In addition, neurite length was increased in cells grown on silica-crosslinked aerogel when compared to cells grown on regular petri-dishes. These results further support the notion that PCSA is a promising material for nerve regeneration. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Novel Chlorhexidine-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles for Root Canal Treatment
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020029
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
Viewed by 1883 | PDF Full-text (21693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Persistence of microorganisms in dentinal tubules after root canal chemo-mechanical preparation has been well documented. The complex anatomy of the root canal and dentinal buffering ability make delivery of antimicrobial agents difficult. This work explores the use of a novel trilayered nanoparticle (TNP)
[...] Read more.
Persistence of microorganisms in dentinal tubules after root canal chemo-mechanical preparation has been well documented. The complex anatomy of the root canal and dentinal buffering ability make delivery of antimicrobial agents difficult. This work explores the use of a novel trilayered nanoparticle (TNP) drug delivery system that encapsulates chlorhexidine digluconate, which is aimed at improving the disinfection of the root canal system. Chlorhexidine digluconate was encapsulated inside polymeric self-assembled TNPs. These were self-assembled through water-in-oil emulsion from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA), a di-block copolymer, with one hydrophilic segment and another hydrophobic. The resulting TNPs were physicochemically characterized and their antimicrobial effectiveness was evaluated against Enterococcus faecalis using a broth inhibition method. The hydrophilic interior of the TNPs successfully entrapped chlorhexidine digluconate. The resulting TNPs had particle size ranging from 140–295 nm, with adequate encapsulation efficiency, and maintained inhibition of bacteria over 21 days. The delivery of antibacterial irrigants throughout the dentinal matrix by employing the TNP system described in this work may be an effective alternative to improve root canal disinfection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials and Biomaterials)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Rapidly-Dissolving Silver-Containing Bioactive Glasses for Cariostatic Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020028
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1516 | PDF Full-text (9079 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel bioactive glass series containing incremental amounts of silver oxide was synthesized, ground down, and subsequently incorporated into a dentifrice for the purpose of reducing the incidence of dental caries and lesion formation. Three glasses were synthesized using the melt quench route:
[...] Read more.
A novel bioactive glass series containing incremental amounts of silver oxide was synthesized, ground down, and subsequently incorporated into a dentifrice for the purpose of reducing the incidence of dental caries and lesion formation. Three glasses were synthesized using the melt quench route: Si-Control (70SiO2–12CaO–3P2O5–15Na2O, mol %), Si-02 and Si-05, where 0.2 and 0.5 mol % Ag2O were substituted, respectively, for SiO2 in Si-Control. The glasses were then ground, sieved, characterized, and dissolved in Tris buffer solution (pH = 7.30) for 6, 12, and 24 h, with the pH of the resultant solution being recorded and the ions that were released into solution quantified. Samples of each glass were subsequently embedded into a non-fluoridated, commercially available toothpaste which was then used to brush resin-mounted lamb molars which, up to the point of testing, had been stored in a 1.0 M HCl solution. Knoop microhardness measurements of the molars were recorded before and after brushing to determine the presence of remineralization on the surface of the teeth (surface hardness loss of 37%, 35%, and 34% for Si-Control, Si-02 and Si-05, respectively, after 24 h). Four oral cavity bacterial strains were isolated through swabs of the inner cheek, gums, and teeth surfaces of three volunteers, and placed on agar discs. Of each glass, 0.5 g was placed onto the discs, and the resultant inhibition zones were measured after 6, 12, and 24 h. Si-05 performed better than Si-02 on two strains after 24 h, while exhibiting similar behavior for the remaining two strains after 24 h; the largest inhibition zone measured was 2.8 mm, for Si-05 after 12 h. Si-Control exhibited no antibacterial effect at any time point, providing evidence for the role of silver oxide as the antibacterial component of these glasses. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Short-Term Degradation of Bi-Component Electrospun Fibers: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluations via AFM Analysis
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020027
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
Viewed by 1932 | PDF Full-text (6860 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrospun polymeric fibers are currently used as 3D models for in vitro applications in biomedical areas, i.e., tissue engineering, cell and drug delivery. The high customization of the electrospinning process offers numerous opportunities to manipulate and control surface area, fiber diameter, and fiber
[...] Read more.
Electrospun polymeric fibers are currently used as 3D models for in vitro applications in biomedical areas, i.e., tissue engineering, cell and drug delivery. The high customization of the electrospinning process offers numerous opportunities to manipulate and control surface area, fiber diameter, and fiber density to evaluate the response of cells under different morphological and/or biochemical stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate—via atomic force microscopy (AFM)—the chemical and morphological changes in bi-component electrospun fibers (BEFs) during the in vitro degradation process using a biological medium. BEFs were fabricated by electrospinning a mixture of synthetic-polycaprolactone (PCL)-and natural polymers (gelatin) into a binary solution. During the hydrolytic degradation of protein, no significant remarkable effects were recognized in terms of fiber integrity. However, increases in surface roughness as well as a decrease in fiber diameter as a function of the degradation conditions were detected. We suggest that morphological and chemical changes due to the local release of gelatin positively influence cell behavior in culture, in terms of cell adhesion and spreading, thus working to mimic the native microenvironment of natural tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCorrection Correction: W.C. Mak, et al. Controlled Delivery of Human Cells by Temperature Responsive Microcapsules. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 439–453
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020026
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
Viewed by 1526 | PDF Full-text (563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, we found a mistake in Figure 4D in our previously published paper[...] Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top