A novel bioactive glass series containing incremental amounts of silver oxide was synthesized, ground down, and subsequently incorporated into a dentifrice for the purpose of reducing the incidence of dental caries and lesion formation. Three glasses were synthesized using the melt quench route: Si-Control (70SiO2
O, mol %), Si-02 and Si-05, where 0.2 and 0.5 mol % Ag2
O were substituted, respectively, for SiO2
in Si-Control. The glasses were then ground, sieved, characterized, and dissolved in Tris buffer solution (pH = 7.30) for 6, 12, and 24 h, with the pH of the resultant solution being recorded and the ions that were released into solution quantified. Samples of each glass were subsequently embedded into a non-fluoridated, commercially available toothpaste which was then used to brush resin-mounted lamb molars which, up to the point of testing, had been stored in a 1.0 M HCl solution. Knoop microhardness measurements of the molars were recorded before and after brushing to determine the presence of remineralization on the surface of the teeth (surface hardness loss of 37%, 35%, and 34% for Si-Control, Si-02 and Si-05, respectively, after 24 h). Four oral cavity bacterial strains were isolated through swabs of the inner cheek, gums, and teeth surfaces of three volunteers, and placed on agar discs. Of each glass, 0.5 g was placed onto the discs, and the resultant inhibition zones were measured after 6, 12, and 24 h. Si-05 performed better than Si-02 on two strains after 24 h, while exhibiting similar behavior for the remaining two strains after 24 h; the largest inhibition zone measured was 2.8 mm, for Si-05 after 12 h. Si-Control exhibited no antibacterial effect at any time point, providing evidence for the role of silver oxide as the antibacterial component of these glasses.
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