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Open AccessReview

Nail Properties and Bone Health: A Review

1
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2
Department of Food Science, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
3
Centre for Bioengineering & Nanomedicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
4
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9020031
Received: 3 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Physicochemical properties of nail may offer valuable insight into the health of bone. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard technique for evaluating bone health through bone mineral density (BMD). However, only 70% of fractures are explained by low BMD according to DXA. Therefore, the World Health Organisation recommended the need for the development of alternative methods of assessing bone health. Keratin and collagen type I are major proteins in nail and bone, respectively. Both of these proteins undergo post-translational modifications, with a possible correlation between the degree of post-translational modifications in keratin and collagen. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to detect changes in protein composition and structure. As changes in protein function and structure may be associated with the development of osteoporosis, Raman spectroscopy may be a valuable adjunct to assess bone health and fracture risk. This review critically evaluates various methods and techniques to identify the link between nail properties and bone health. The strengths and limitations of various studies and the potential use of nail protein and minerals to evaluate bone health have been also presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: nail plate protein; collagen; nail mineral composition; bone mineral density; Raman spectroscopy nail plate protein; collagen; nail mineral composition; bone mineral density; Raman spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saeedi, P.; Shavandi, A.; Meredith-Jones, K. Nail Properties and Bone Health: A Review. J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9, 31.

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