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J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 15, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Advancements in imaging, particularly high-speed imaging with a 100 kHz frame rate, have aided spray visualization analysis. This technique allows for the investigation of the impact of nozzle design on spray distribution, particularly regarding droplet size, particle number, and surface coverage. Analyzing these factors provides deeper insights into how nozzles influence cell behavior and how this can impact cell spray treatments for burn wounds. Efficient cell delivery and complete wound coverage are crucial for success, and investigating nozzle design through high-speed imaging analysis can significantly improve these outcomes. View this paper
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13 pages, 3667 KiB  
Article
Strategic Use of Biodegradable Temporizing Matrix (BTM) in Wound Healing: A Case Series in Asian Patients
by Angela Chien-Yu Chen, Tsuo-Wu Lin, Ke-Chung Chang and Dun-Hao Chang
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050136 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Skin and soft tissue reconstruction has long been based on the reconstructive ladder. However, a skin substitute has become popular due to its predictable outcomes, without donor-site morbidity. The biodegradable temporizing matrix (BTM; NovoSorb, PolyNovo Ltd., Port Melbourne, Australia) is a synthetic skin [...] Read more.
Skin and soft tissue reconstruction has long been based on the reconstructive ladder. However, a skin substitute has become popular due to its predictable outcomes, without donor-site morbidity. The biodegradable temporizing matrix (BTM; NovoSorb, PolyNovo Ltd., Port Melbourne, Australia) is a synthetic skin substitute that has recently gained its clinical application. Compared with those of other dermal templates, the clinical efficacy and performance of the BTM are not well established, especially among the Asian population. This study aims to share our experience and strategy of using BTM in various wound conditions. The data of patients who underwent skin and soft tissue reconstruction with BTM at a single institution between January 2022 and December 2023 were reviewed. The patient demographics, wound characteristics, surgical details, secondary procedures, and complications were recorded and analyzed. Postoperative 6-month photographs were collected and independently evaluated by two plastic surgeons and two wound care center nurses using the Manchester Scar Scale (MSS). This study included 37 patients, consisting of 22 males and 15 females with a mean age of 51.8 years (range, 18–86 years old). The wound etiologies included trauma (67.6%), necrotizing soft tissue infection (16.2%), burns (10.8%), toe gangrene (2.7%), and scar excision (2.7%). The average wound area covered by BTM was 50.6 ± 47.6 cm2. Among the patients, eight received concomitant flap surgery and BTM implantation, 20 (54.1%) underwent subsequent split-thickness skin grafts (STSG), and 17 had small wounds (mean: 21.6 cm2) healed by secondary intention. Infection was the most common complication, affecting six patients (n = 6 [16.2%]), five of whom were treated conservatively, and only one required debridement. Thirty-three patients (89.2%) had good BTM take, and only four had BTM failure, requiring further reconstruction. At the last follow-up, 35 out of the 37 patients (94.6%) achieved successful wound closure, and the total MSS score was 10.44 ± 2.94, indicating a satisfactory scar condition. The patients who underwent BTM grafting without STSG had better scar scores than those who received STSG (8.71 ± 2.60 vs. 11.18 ± 2.84, p = 0.039). In conclusion, the BTM is effective and feasible in treating various wounds, with relatively low complication rates, and it can thus be considered as an alternative for skin and soft tissue reconstruction. When combined with adipofasical flap reconstruction, it achieves a more comprehensive anatomical restoration. Full article
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17 pages, 21325 KiB  
Article
In Silico Evaluation of In Vivo Degradation Kinetics of Poly(Lactic Acid) Vascular Stent Devices
by Shicheng He, Lingling Wei, Guixue Wang, Nicola M. Pugno, Qiang Chen and Zhiyong Li
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050135 - 17 May 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Biodegradable vascular stents (BVS) are deemed as great potential alternatives for overcoming the inherent limitations of permanent metallic stents in the treatment of coronary artery diseases. The current study aimed to comprehensively compare the mechanical behaviors of four poly(lactic acid) (PLA) BVS designs [...] Read more.
Biodegradable vascular stents (BVS) are deemed as great potential alternatives for overcoming the inherent limitations of permanent metallic stents in the treatment of coronary artery diseases. The current study aimed to comprehensively compare the mechanical behaviors of four poly(lactic acid) (PLA) BVS designs with varying geometries via numerical methods and to clarify the optimal BVS selection. Four PLA BVS (i.e., Absorb, DESolve, Igaki-Tamai, and Fantom) were first constructed. A degradation model was refined by simply including the fatigue effect induced by pulsatile blood pressures, and an explicit solver was employed to simulate the crimping and degradation behaviors of the four PLA BVS. The degradation dynamics here were characterized by four indices. The results indicated that the stent designs affected crimping and degradation behaviors. Compared to the other three stents, the DESolve stent had the greatest radial stiffness in the crimping simulation and the best diameter maintenance ability despite its faster degradation; moreover, the stent was considered to perform better according to a pilot scoring system. The current work provides a theoretical method for studying and understanding the degradation dynamics of the PLA BVS, and it could be helpful for the design of next-generation BVS. Full article
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20 pages, 49154 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Interfacial Adaptation and Depth Penetration of Recent HiFlow versus Regular Bioceramic Sealers in Conjunction with BC Gutta-Percha Points Using Two Different Obturation Techniques—A Preliminary Report of an Ex Vivo Study
by Sawsan T. Abu-Zeid and Ruaa A. Alamoudi
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050134 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 573
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the adaptability and penetration depth capacity of recent bioceramic systems, including regular EndoSequence (BC) versus HiFlow (BCH) sealers in the presence of BC points. A total of 54 single-rooted teeth were instrumented and obturated with either the cold [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the adaptability and penetration depth capacity of recent bioceramic systems, including regular EndoSequence (BC) versus HiFlow (BCH) sealers in the presence of BC points. A total of 54 single-rooted teeth were instrumented and obturated with either the cold or warm compaction technique (n = 9), using either BC, BCH, or AH Plus (AHP) combined with BC points. The adaptation, film thickness, and gaps/voids were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The sealer/dentin interface was evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, and depth penetration was evaluated by a confocal laser scanning microscope. According to the normality test, the data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests at p < 0.05. BCH sealer showed the significantly thinnest film with the greatest flow (p > 0.001), with further improvement when subjected to the warm compaction technique. Moreover, it exhibited close adaptation with deep penetration into radicular dentin, forming a tag-like structure. The Raman spectra also indicated close contact with the dentin surface. The use of BC sealer with BC points exhibited homogenous, single-unit obturation, either with a cold or warm technique. Furthermore, the use of the warm compaction technique with BCH sealer achieved a gap-free interface associated with tag-like structures, which exhibit the monoblock phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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14 pages, 2220 KiB  
Article
Resorption Rates of Bone Graft Materials after Crestal Maxillary Sinus Floor Elevation and Its Influencing Factors
by Ling Jing and Baohui Su
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050133 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 646
Abstract
The aim of this study is to analyze the resorption rate of bone graft materials after crestal sinus floor elevation, study its influencing factors, and improve the long-term success rate of implants after crestal maxillary sinus floor elevation. Measurement and analysis were conducted [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to analyze the resorption rate of bone graft materials after crestal sinus floor elevation, study its influencing factors, and improve the long-term success rate of implants after crestal maxillary sinus floor elevation. Measurement and analysis were conducted at six postoperative timepoints (0 months, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months, 24 months, and 30 months) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data on 31 patients from the Chenghuaxinguanghua Dental Clinic who underwent crestal maxillary sinus floor elevation, involving 38 graft sites. The materials resorption rates of the bone graft height (BH) and bone graft width (BW) were assessed. BH and BW resorption rates followed the same trend (p = 0.07), with BH and BW resorption rates decreasing with time (rBH = −0.32, p < 0.01; rBW = −0.18, p < 0.01), and were maximal in the 0–6 month interval, with BH and BW resorption rates of 3.42%/mth and 3.03%/mth, respectively. The average monthly BH and BW resorption rates in the 6–12 month interval rapidly decreased to 1.75%/mth and 1.29%/mth, respectively. The monthly BH and BW resorption rates in the 12–30 month intervals stabilized at 1.45%/mth (p > 0.05) and 1.22%/mth (p > 0.05), respectively. The higher the initial bone graft height (BH0), the lower the BH resorption rates (rBH = −0.98, p < 0.05), and the BW resorption rate was different for different graft sites (p = 0.01). The resorption rates of bone graft materials implanted through crestal maxillary sinus floor elevation decreased rapidly within the first 12 months post operation and remained stable after 12 months. BH0 was identified as a significant factor influencing the resorption rates of bone graft materials. These results could suggest dentists should pay attention to the trend of resorption rates over time and carefully manage the initial height of bone grafts and inspire the research of new bone grafting materials for crestal maxillary sinus floor elevation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials and Oral Implantology—Volume II)
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25 pages, 1493 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effect of Different Irrigating Solutions on Root Canal Dentin Microhardness—A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
by Sunidhi Agarwal, Lora Mishra, Naomi Ranjan Singh, Rini Behera, Manoj Kumar, Ravishankar Nagaraja, Krzysztof Sokolowski and Barbara Lapinska
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050132 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 950
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigating solutions as well as their combination and activation modes on root canal dentin microhardness. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO and PRISMA guidelines were followed. The structured question was as [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigating solutions as well as their combination and activation modes on root canal dentin microhardness. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO and PRISMA guidelines were followed. The structured question was as follows: “Which type of irrigating solution used in endodontic treatment causes more change in dentin microhardness?” The literature was screened via PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Science Direct. The last search was carried out in February 2023 with English language restriction. Two reviewers independently performed screening and evaluation of articles. A total of 470 articles were retrieved from all the databases, whereas only 114 articles were selected for full-text analysis. After applying eligibility criteria, 44 studies were evaluated and included in this review. The results showed that with increased contact time with irrigants, dentin microhardness decreases. Increased contact time with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was associated with more reduction in dentin microhardness compared with other irrigants. Other irrigants, with the exception of distilled water, including EDTA, citric acid, herbal irrigants, glycolic acid, phytic acid, etc., in this study significantly decreased dentin microhardness. The maximum reduction in dentin microhardness was seen with 2.5% NaOCl after 15 min of contact time. The use of irrigating solutions alters the chemical composition of dentin, thereby decreasing its microhardness, which affects the clinical performance of endodontically treated teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials in Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics)
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15 pages, 805 KiB  
Review
Clinical Survival Rate and Laboratory Failure of Dental Veneers: A Narrative Literature Review
by Tariq F. Alghazzawi
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050131 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 882
Abstract
There is a vast amount of published literature concerning dental veneers; however, the effects of tooth preparation, aging, veneer type, and resin cement type on the failure of dental veneers in laboratory versus clinical scenarios are not clear. The purpose of the present [...] Read more.
There is a vast amount of published literature concerning dental veneers; however, the effects of tooth preparation, aging, veneer type, and resin cement type on the failure of dental veneers in laboratory versus clinical scenarios are not clear. The purpose of the present narrative review was to determine the principal factors associated with failures of dental veneers in laboratory tests and to understand how these factors translate into clinical successes/failures. Articles were identified and screened by the lead author in January 2024 using the keywords ‘‘dental veneer”, “complication”, “survival rate”, “failure”, and “success rate” using PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. The inclusion criteria included articles published between January 1999 and January 2024 on the topics of preparation of a tooth, aging processes of the resin cement and veneer, translucency, thickness, fabrication technique of the veneer; shade, and thickness of the resin cement. The exclusion criteria included articles that discussed marginal and internal fit, microhardness, water sorption, solubility, polishability, occlusal veneers, retention, surface treatments, and wear. The results of the present review indicated that dental veneers generally have a high survival rate (>90% for more than 10 years). The amount of preserved enamel layer plays a paramount role in the survival and success rates of veneers, and glass-ceramic veneers with minimal/no preparation showed the highest survival rates. Fracture was the primary failure mechanism associated with decreased survival rate, followed by debonding and color change. Fractures increased in the presence of parafunctional activities. Fewer endodontic complications were associated with veneer restorations. No difference was observed between the maxillary and mandibular teeth. Clinical significance: Fractures can be reduced by evaluation of occlusion immediately after cementation and through the use of high-strength veneer materials, resin cements with low moduli, and thin layers of highly polished veneers. Debonding failures can be reduced with minimal/no preparation, and immediate dentin sealing should be considered when dentin is exposed. Debonding can also be reduced by preventing contamination from blood, saliva, handpiece oil, or fluoride-containing polishing paste; through proper surface treatment (20 s of hydrofluoric acid etching for glass ceramic followed by silane for 60 s); and through use of light-cured polymerization for thin veneers. Long-term color stability may be maintained using resin cements with UDMA-based resin, glass ceramic materials, and light-cure polymerization with thin veneers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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11 pages, 3600 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Open versus Closed Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing Systems on the Marginal Gap of Zirconia-Reinforced Lithium Silicate Single Crowns Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Comparative In Vitro Study
by Asaf Shely, Joseph Nissan, Ofir Rosner, Eran Zenziper, Diva Lugassy, Khadija Abidulkrem and Gil Ben-Izhack
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050130 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 789
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the impact of CAD/CAM closed systems and open systems on the marginal gap of monolithic zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramic crowns, as both systems are used in everyday dentistry, both chair-side and laboratory. For the closed system, 20 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the impact of CAD/CAM closed systems and open systems on the marginal gap of monolithic zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramic crowns, as both systems are used in everyday dentistry, both chair-side and laboratory. For the closed system, 20 plastic teeth were scanned by a Primescan intra-oral scanner (IOS), and for the open system, the same number of plastic teeth were scanned by Trios 4 IOS. For the closed system, CEREC software was used, and for the open system, EXOCAD software was used. All 40 ZLS crowns were grinded by the same four-axis machine and cemented with Temp-bond, followed by self-adhesive resin cement. For each type of cement, an evaluation of the marginal gap was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before comparisons between the groups, a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was performed on the study variables showing a normal distribution (p > 0.05). Independent T tests (α = 0.05) and paired-sample T tests (α = 0.05) were used. The independent T test found no significant mean marginal gap differences in the zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate crowns bonded with Temp-bond and scanned by Primescan (28.09 μm ± 3.06) compared to Trios 4 (28.94 μm ± 3.30) (p = 0.401), and there was no significant mean marginal gap differences in zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate crowns bonded with self-adhesive resin cement (Gcem ONE) and scanned by Primescan (46.70 μm ± 3.80) compared to Trios 4 (47.79 μm ± 2.59) (p = 0.295). Paired-sample T tests showed significantly higher mean marginal gaps with Gcem ONE compared to Temp-bond for the total mean marginal gap when scanning with Primescan (p = 0.0005) or Trios 4 (p = 0.0005). In everyday dentistry, both closed systems (Primescan with Cerec) and open systems (Trios 4 with Exocad) can be used to achieve an acceptable (<120 µm) marginal gap for ZLS CELTRA® DUO single crowns. There is a significant difference between cementation with Temp-bond and Gcem ONE self-adhesive resin cement (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials in Dentistry 2024)
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23 pages, 3594 KiB  
Article
Preparation and In Vitro Characterization of Lactococcus lactis-Loaded Alginate Particles as a Promising Delivery Tool for Periodontal Probiotic Therapy
by Bettina Wuttke, Katharina Ekat, Oleksandra Chabanovska, Mario Jackszis, Armin Springer, Praveen Vasudevan, Bernd Kreikemeyer and Hermann Lang
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050129 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Probiotic microorganisms are used in a variety of food supplements and medical formulations to promote human health. In periodontal therapy, probiotics are mainly used in the form of gels, tablets or rinses that often tend to leak from the periodontal pocket, resulting in [...] Read more.
Probiotic microorganisms are used in a variety of food supplements and medical formulations to promote human health. In periodontal therapy, probiotics are mainly used in the form of gels, tablets or rinses that often tend to leak from the periodontal pocket, resulting in a strongly reduced therapeutic effect. In this pilot in vitro study, we present biodegradable alginate-based particles as an alternative, highly efficient system for a periodontal delivery of probiotic bacteria to the inflammation site. For this purpose, Lactococcus (L.) lactis was encapsulated using a standardized pump-controlled extrusion-dripping method. Time-dependent bacterial release in artificial saliva was investigated over 9 days. The effect of freeze drying was explored to ensure long-term storage of L. lactis-loaded particles. Additionally, the particles were bound to dentin surface using approved bioadhesives and subjected to shear stress in a hydrodynamic flow chamber that mimics the oral cavity in vitro. Thus, round particles within the range of 0.80–1.75 mm in radius could be produced, whereby the diameter of the dripping tip had the most significant impact on the size. Although both small and large particles demonstrated a similar release trend of L. lactis, the release rate was significantly higher in the former. Following lyophilization, particles could restore their original shape within 4 h in artificial saliva; thereby, the bacterial viability was not affected. The attachment strength to dentin intensified by an adhesive could resist forces between 10 and 25 N/m2. Full degradation of the particles was observed after 20 days in artificial saliva. Therefore, alginate particles display a valuable probiotic carrier for periodontal applications that have several crucial advantages over existing preparations: a highly stable form, prolonged continuous release of therapeutic bacteria, precise manufacturing according to required dimensions at the application site, strong attachment to the tooth with low risk of dislocation, high biocompatibility and biodegradability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Periodontal Regeneration)
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0 pages, 7306 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Mechanical, Surface, and Optical Properties of Restorative Materials Applied with Different Techniques
by Merve Nezir and Suat Özcan
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050128 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 588
Abstract
(1) Background: currently, the advantages of bulk-fill resin composite and high-viscosity glass ionomer materials have increased their use in dentistry; accordingly, their mechanical, surface, and optical properties have become more important. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanical, surface, and optical properties of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: currently, the advantages of bulk-fill resin composite and high-viscosity glass ionomer materials have increased their use in dentistry; accordingly, their mechanical, surface, and optical properties have become more important. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanical, surface, and optical properties of three different restorative materials (a high-viscosity bulk-fill resin composite (TNC), a flowable bulk-fill resin composite (EBF), and a high-viscosity glass ionomer (FIX)) after application using different techniques (control, heat application, and ultrasonic activation). (2) Methods: specimens were prepared to assess the color stability and surface roughness (n = 12). The specimens were immersed in two different solutions for 14 days. For the compressive strength test, specimens were prepared using a Teflon mold (n = 12). (3) Results: among the specimens applied according to the manufacturer’s instructions and immersed in distilled water, it was observed that the surface roughness values of FIX on the 7th day were statistically significantly higher than the other materials (p < 0.05). The compressive strength values of EBF applied using ultrasonic activation were significantly lower than those of EBF applied using the other techniques (p < 0.05). (4) Conclusions: coffee can negatively affect the color stability of restorative materials, but discoloration may vary depending on differences in the content of the material. All materials evaluated in this study exhibited clinically acceptable surface roughness values. It can be concluded that flowable bulk-fill resin composite is the most durable material in terms of compressive strength, so it can be used in the restoration of posterior teeth, especially those exposed to intensive stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 6173 KiB  
Article
Process Optimization of Scaled-Up Production and Biosafety Evaluation of the Dimethyl-Dioctadecyl-Ammonium Bromide/Poly(lactic acid) Nano-Vaccine
by Hengye Yang, Yuan Gao, Meijuan Liu, Juan Ma and Qun Lu
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050127 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Nano-adjuvant vaccines could induce immune responses and enhance immunogenicity. However, the application and manufacturing of nano-adjuvant is hampered by its challenging scale-up, poor reproducibility, and low security. Therefore, the present study aimed to optimize the preparation nanoparticles (NPs) using FDA-approved biopolymer materials poly(lactic [...] Read more.
Nano-adjuvant vaccines could induce immune responses and enhance immunogenicity. However, the application and manufacturing of nano-adjuvant is hampered by its challenging scale-up, poor reproducibility, and low security. Therefore, the present study aimed to optimize the preparation nanoparticles (NPs) using FDA-approved biopolymer materials poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and cationic lipid didodecyl-dimethyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB), develop the scale-up process, and evaluate the stability and biosafety of it. The optimum preparation conditions of DDAB/PLA NPs on a small scale were as follows: DDAB amount of 30 mg, aqueous phase volume of 90 mL, stirring rate at 550 rpm, and solidifying time of 12 h. Under the optimum conditions, the size of the NPs was about 170 nm. In scale-up preparation experiments, the vacuum rotary evaporation of 6 h and the Tangential flow ultrafiltration (TFU) method were the optimum conditions. The results suggested that DDAB/PLA NPs exhibited a uniform particle size distribution, with an average size of 150.3 ± 10.4 nm and a narrow polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.090 ± 0.13, coupled with a high antigen loading capacity of 85.4 ± 4.0%. In addition, the DDAB/PLA NPs can be stored stably for 30 days and do not have side effects caused by residual solvents. For biosafety, the acute toxicity experiments showed good tolerance of the vaccine formulation even at a high adjuvant dose. The local irritation experiment demonstrated the reversibility of muscular irritation, and the repeated toxicity experiment revealed no significant necrosis or severe lesions in mice injected with the high-dose vaccine formulation. Overall, the DDAB/PLA NPs exhibit potential for clinical translation as a safe candidate vaccine adjuvant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Nanocompounds for Cancer Therapy)
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16 pages, 2163 KiB  
Article
High-Speed Fluorescence Imaging Corroborates Biological Data on the Influence of Different Nozzle Types on Cell Spray Viability and Formation
by Miriam Heuer, Mehdi Stiti, Volker Eras, Julia Scholz, Norus Ahmed, Edouard Berrocal and Jan C. Brune
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050126 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Treating severe dermal disruptions often presents significant challenges. Recent advancements have explored biological cell sprays as a promising treatment, but their success hinges on efficient cell delivery and complete wound coverage. This requires a good spray distribution with a small droplet size, high [...] Read more.
Treating severe dermal disruptions often presents significant challenges. Recent advancements have explored biological cell sprays as a promising treatment, but their success hinges on efficient cell delivery and complete wound coverage. This requires a good spray distribution with a small droplet size, high particle number, and ample surface coverage. The type of nozzle used with the spray device can impact these parameters. To evaluate the influence of different nozzles on spray characteristics, we compared air-assisted and unassisted nozzles. The unassisted nozzle displayed small particle size, high particle number, good overall coverage, high cell viability, preserved cell metabolic activity, and low cytotoxicity. Air-assisted nozzles did not perform well regarding cell viability and metabolic activity. Flow visualization analysis comparing two different unassisted nozzles using high-speed imaging (100 kHz frame rate) revealed a tulip-shaped spray pattern, indicating optimal spray distribution. High-speed imaging showed differences between the unassisted nozzles. One unassisted nozzle displayed a bi-modal distribution of the droplet diameter while the other unassisted nozzle displayed a mono-modal distribution. These findings demonstrate the critical role of nozzle selection in successful cell delivery. A high-quality, certified nozzle manufactured for human application omits the need for an air-assisted nozzle and provides a simple system to use with similar or better performance characteristics than those of an air-assisted system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials in Medical Diagnosis and Treatment)
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10 pages, 774 KiB  
Article
Effect of Bleaching on Resin-Infiltration-Masked Artificial White Spots In Vitro
by Alan Leon Sinanovic, Philipp Messer-Hannemann, Mariam Samadi, Falk Schwendicke and Susanne Effenberger
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050125 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Resin infiltration is an effective method to mask vestibular white spots. If needed, external bleaching is usually recommended before infiltration, whilst in clinical practice, this sequence may not always be feasible. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of bleaching after resin infiltration [...] Read more.
Resin infiltration is an effective method to mask vestibular white spots. If needed, external bleaching is usually recommended before infiltration, whilst in clinical practice, this sequence may not always be feasible. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of bleaching after resin infiltration regarding surface roughness and color using bovine incisors. Unlike for the untreated specimens (control, n = 25), artificial caries lesions were created within the test group (n = 25) using a demineralization solution at 37 °C for five days (pH = 4.95). The lesions were subsequently infiltrated using a resin infiltrant (Icon, DMG, Hamburg, Germany), followed by polishing. Afterwards, all specimens were bleached with a 10% carbamide peroxide gel (Opalescence, Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA) for 8 h/day over a ten-day period. Between bleaching treatments, specimens were stored in an opaque container with moistened paper tissues at 37 °C. Surface roughness was measured using a profilometer, and color in the L*a*b* space was assessed spectrophotometrically before and after bleaching. Bleaching increased the L*-values of both infiltrated (mean ± SD; ΔL* = 3.52 ± 1.98) and untreated (control) specimens (ΔL* = 3.53 ± 2.30) without any significant difference between the groups (p = 0.983). Bleaching also induced a significant increase in the mean surface roughness of both infiltrated (p < 0.001) and untreated (p = 0.0134) teeth. In terms of clinical relevance; it can be concluded that bleaching resin-infiltrated enamel is as effective as bleaching sound enamel. Full article
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16 pages, 9824 KiB  
Article
Use of Local Melatonin with Xenogeneic Bone Graft to Treat Critical-Size Bone Defects in Rats with Osteoporosis: A Randomized Study
by Karen Laurene Dalla Costa, Letícia Furtado Abreu, Camila Barreto Tolomei, Rachel Gomes Eleutério, Rosanna Basting, Gabriela Balbinot, Fabrício Mezzomo Collares, Pedro Lopes, Nelio Veiga, Gustavo Vicentis Oliveira Fernandes and Daiane Cristina Peruzzo
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050124 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 761
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of local administration of melatonin (MLT) on molecular biomarkers and calvaria bone critical defects in female rats with or without osteoporosis, associated or not with a xenogeneic biomaterial. Forty-eight female rats were randomly [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of local administration of melatonin (MLT) on molecular biomarkers and calvaria bone critical defects in female rats with or without osteoporosis, associated or not with a xenogeneic biomaterial. Forty-eight female rats were randomly divided into two groups: (O) ovariectomized and (S) placebo groups. After 45 days of osteoporosis induction, two critical-size defects (5 mm diameter) were created on the calvaria. The groups were subdivided according to the following treatment: (C) Clot, MLT, MLT associated with Bio-Oss® (MLTBO), and Bio-Oss® (BO). After 45 days, the defect samples were collected and processed for microtomography, histomorphometry, and biomolecular analysis (Col-I, BMP-2, and OPN). All animals had one femur harvested to confirm the osteoporosis. Microtomography analysis demonstrated a bone mineral density reduction in the O group. Regarding bone healing, the S group presented greater filling of the defects than the O group; however, in the O group, the defects treated with MLT showed higher mineral filling than the other treatments. There was no difference between the treatments performed in the S group (p = 0.05). Otherwise, O-MLT had neoformed bone higher than in the other groups (p = 0.05). The groups that did not receive biomaterial demonstrated lower levels of Col-I secretion; S-MLT and S-MLTBO presented higher levels of OPN, while O-C presented statistically lower results (p < 0.05); O-BO showed greater BMP-2 secretion (p < 0.05). In the presence of ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis, MLT treatment increased the newly formed bone area, regulated the inflammatory response, and increased OPN expression. Full article
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15 pages, 1313 KiB  
Systematic Review
Structural and Color Alterations of Teeth following Orthodontic Debonding: A Systematic Review
by Francesco Inchingolo, Angelo Michele Inchingolo, Lilla Riccaldo, Roberta Morolla, Roberta Sardano, Daniela Di Venere, Andrea Palermo, Alessio Danilo Inchingolo, Gianna Dipalma and Massimo Corsalini
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050123 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Aim: The objective of this study was to explore the effects of fixed orthodontic appliances on enamel structure by assessing microfractures, surface roughness, and alterations in color. Methods: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A systematic [...] Read more.
Aim: The objective of this study was to explore the effects of fixed orthodontic appliances on enamel structure by assessing microfractures, surface roughness, and alterations in color. Methods: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A systematic search of online databases was conducted using the keywords ‘enamel’ AND ‘orthodontic debonding’. Eligibility criteria included both in vivo and ex vivo clinical trials conducted on human teeth. Results and Discussion: A total of 14 relevant papers were analyzed. Various instruments and techniques were utilized across different studies to assess surface roughness, color change, and surface fractures. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that ceramic brackets may lead to an increase in enamel fractures, particularly during bracket removal. The surface roughness of enamel exhibits variability depending on the adhesive substance and polishing methods used post-removal. Fixed orthodontic appliances could induce changes in enamel color, which may be alleviated by the use of nano-hydroxyapatite or specific polishing techniques. Further research is necessary to identify effective strategies for managing these color changes and improving the overall outcomes of fixed orthodontic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials and Technologies in Orthodontics)
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16 pages, 4014 KiB  
Article
Fracture Resistance of a Bone-Level Two-Piece Zirconia Oral Implant System—The Influence of Artificial Loading and Hydrothermal Aging
by Ralf J. Kohal, Ellen Riesterer, Kirstin Vach, Sebastian B. M. Patzelt, Aljaž Iveković, Lara Einfalt, Andraž Kocjan and Anna-Lena Hillebrecht
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050122 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Preclinical and clinical research on two-piece zirconia implants are warranted. Therefore, we evaluated the in vitro fracture resistance of such a zirconia oral implant system. The present study comprised 32 two-piece zirconia implants and abutments attached to the implants using a titanium ( [...] Read more.
Preclinical and clinical research on two-piece zirconia implants are warranted. Therefore, we evaluated the in vitro fracture resistance of such a zirconia oral implant system. The present study comprised 32 two-piece zirconia implants and abutments attached to the implants using a titanium (n = 16) or a zirconia abutment screw (n = 16). Both groups were subdivided (n = 8): group T-0 comprised implants with a titanium abutment screw and no artificial loading; group T-HL was the titanium screw group exposed to hydro-thermomechanical loading in a chewing simulator; group Z-0 was the zirconia abutment screw group with no artificial loading; and group Z-HL comprised the zirconia screw group with hydro-thermomechanical loading. Groups T-HL and Z-HL were loaded with 98 N and aged in 85 °C hot water for 107 chewing cycles. All samples were loaded to fracture. Kruskal–Wallis tests were executed to assess the loading/bending moment group differences. The significance level was established at a probability of 0.05. During the artificial loading, there was a single occurrence of an implant fracture. The mean fracture resistances measured in a universal testing machine were 749 N for group T-0, 828 N for group Z-0, 652 N for group T-HL, and 826 N for group Z-HL. The corresponding bending moments were as follows: group T-0, 411 Ncm; group Z-0, 452 Ncm; group T-HL, 356 Ncm; and group Z-HL, 456 Ncm. There were no statistically significant differences found between the experimental groups. Therefore, the conclusion was that loading and aging did not diminish the fracture resistance of the evaluated implant system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials and Oral Implantology—Volume II)
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2 pages, 631 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Omori et al. Sinus Mucosal Damage Triggered by Synthetic or Xenogeneic Bone Substitutes: A Histological Analysis in Rabbits. J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13, 257
by Yuki Omori, Daniele Botticelli, Stefano Migani, Vitor Ferreira Balan, Eduardo Pires Godoy and Samuel Porfirio Xavier
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050121 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 533
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Regeneration and Repair Materials)
14 pages, 17634 KiB  
Article
Design of Multi-Functional Bio-Safe Dental Resin Composites with Mineralization and Anti-Biofilm Properties
by Jiaojiao Yun, Michael F. Burrow, Jukka P. Matinlinna, Hao Ding, Sin Man (Rosalind) Chan, James K. H. Tsoi and Yan Wang
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050120 - 30 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
This study aims to develop multi-functional bio-safe dental resin composites with capabilities for mineralization, high in vitro biocompatibility, and anti-biofilm properties. To address this issue, experimental resin composites consisting of UDMA/TEGDMA-based dental resins and low quantities (1.9, 3.8, and 7.7 vol%) of 45S5 [...] Read more.
This study aims to develop multi-functional bio-safe dental resin composites with capabilities for mineralization, high in vitro biocompatibility, and anti-biofilm properties. To address this issue, experimental resin composites consisting of UDMA/TEGDMA-based dental resins and low quantities (1.9, 3.8, and 7.7 vol%) of 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) particles were developed. To evaluate cellular responses of resin composites, MC3T3-E1 cells were (1) exposed to the original composites extracts, (2) cultured directly on the freshly cured resin composites, or (3) cultured on preconditioned composites that have been soaked in deionized water (DI water), a cell culture medium (MEM), or a simple HEPES-containing artificial remineralization promotion (SHARP) solution for 14 days. Cell adhesion, cell viability, and cell differentiation were, respectively, assessed. In addition, the anti-biofilm properties of BAG-loaded resin composites regarding bacterial viability, biofilm thickness, and biofilm morphology, were assessed for the first time. In vitro biological results demonstrated that cell metabolic activity and ALP expression were significantly diminished when subjected to composite extracts or direct contact with the resin composites containing BAG fillers. However, after the preconditioning treatments in MEM and SHARP solutions, the biomimetic calcium phosphate minerals on 7.7 vol% BAG-loaded composites revealed unimpaired or even better cellular processes, including cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and early cell differentiation. Furthermore, resin composites with 1.9, 3.8, and 7.7 vol% BAG could not only reduce cell viability in S. mutans biofilm on the composite surface but also reduce the biofilm thickness and bacterial aggregations. This phenomenon was more evident in BAG7.7 due to the high ionic osmotic pressure and alkaline microenvironment caused by BAG dissolution. This study concludes that multi-functional bio-safe resin composites with mineralization and anti-biofilm properties can be achieved by adding low quantities of BAG into the resin system, which offers promising abilities to mineralize as well as prevent caries without sacrificing biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Dental Restorations—Volume II)
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21 pages, 5147 KiB  
Article
Investigating Bioactive-Glass-Infused Gels for Enamel Remineralization: An In Vitro Study
by Zbigniew Raszewski, Katarzyna Chojnacka and Marcin Mikulewicz
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050119 - 29 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
Objective: Dental hypersensitivity remains widespread, underscoring the need for materials that can effectively seal dental tubules. This study evaluated the potential of bioactive-glass-infused hydroxyethyl cellulose gels in this context. Methods: Five gels were synthesized, each containing 20% bioactive glass (specifically, 45S5, S53P4, Biomin [...] Read more.
Objective: Dental hypersensitivity remains widespread, underscoring the need for materials that can effectively seal dental tubules. This study evaluated the potential of bioactive-glass-infused hydroxyethyl cellulose gels in this context. Methods: Five gels were synthesized, each containing 20% bioactive glass (specifically, 45S5, S53P4, Biomin F, and Biomin C), with an additional blank gel serving as a control. Subjected to two months of accelerated aging at 37 ± 2 °C, these gels were assessed for key properties: viscosity, water disintegration time, pH level, consistency, adhesion to glass, and element release capability. Results: Across the board, the gels facilitated the release of calcium, phosphate, and silicon ions, raising the pH from 9.00 ± 0.10 to 9.7 ± 0.0—a range conducive to remineralization. Dissolution in water occurred within 30–50 min post-application. Viscosity readings showed variability, with 45S5 reaching 6337 ± 24 mPa/s and Biomin F at 3269 ± 18 mPa/s after two months. Initial adhesion for the blank gel was measured at 0.27 ± 0.04 Pa, increasing to 0.73 ± 0.06 Pa for the others over time. Gels can release elements upon contact with water (Ca Biomin C 104.8 ± 15.7 mg/L; Na Biomin F 76.30 ± 11.44 mg/L; P Biomin C 2.623 ± 0.393 mg/L; Si 45S5-45.15 ± 6.77mg/L, F Biomin F 3.256 ± 0.651mg/L; Cl Biomin C 135.5 ± 20.3 mg/L after 45 min). Conclusions: These findings highlight the gels’ capacity to kickstart the remineralization process by delivering critical ions needed for enamel layer reconstruction. Further exploration in more dynamic, real-world conditions is recommended to fully ascertain their practical utility. Full article
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17 pages, 5139 KiB  
Article
Resorbable Patient-Specific Implants of Molybdenum for Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery—Proof of Concept in an In Vivo Pilot Study
by Dominik Thomas Hoppe, André Toschka, Nadia Karnatz, Henriette Louise Moellmann, Maximilian Seidl, Lutz van Meenen, Georg Poehle, Christian Redlich and Majeed Rana
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050118 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 909
Abstract
Titanium continues to be the gold standard in the field of osteosynthesis materials. This also applies to pediatric craniofacial surgery. Various resorbable materials have already been developed in order to avoid costly and risky second operations to remove metal in children. However, none [...] Read more.
Titanium continues to be the gold standard in the field of osteosynthesis materials. This also applies to pediatric craniofacial surgery. Various resorbable materials have already been developed in order to avoid costly and risky second operations to remove metal in children. However, none of these resorbable materials have been able to completely replace the previous gold standard, titanium, in a satisfactory manner. This has led to the need for a new resorbable osteosynthesis material that fulfills the requirements for biocompatibility, stability, and uniform resorption. In our previous in vitro and in vivo work, we were able to show that molybdenum fulfills these requirements. To further confirm these results, we conducted a proof of concept in four domestic pigs, each of which was implanted with a resorbable molybdenum implant. The animals were then examined daily for local inflammatory parameters. After 54 days, the animals were euthanized with subsequent computer tomography imaging. We also removed the implants together with the surrounding tissue and parts of the spleen, liver, and kidney for histopathological evaluation. The molybdenum implants were also analyzed metallographically and using scanning electron microscopy. A blood sample was taken pre- and post-operatively. None of the animals showed clinical signs of inflammation over the entire test period. Histopathologically, good tissue compatibility was found. Early signs of degradation were observed after 54 days, which were not sufficient for major resorption. Resorption is expected with longer in situ residence times based on results of similar earlier investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Composites for Bone Implants and Osseointegration)
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25 pages, 10370 KiB  
Article
Tailoring Microemulsification Techniques for the Encapsulation of Diverse Cargo: A Systematic Analysis of Poly (Urea-Formaldehyde) Microcapsules
by Sivashankari P. Rajasekaran, Bao Huynh and Ana Paula P. Fugolin
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050117 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Cargo encapsulation through emulsion-based methods has been pondered over the years. Although several microemulsification techniques have been employed for the microcapsule’s synthesis, there are still no clear guidelines regarding the suitability of one technique over the others or the impacts on the morphological [...] Read more.
Cargo encapsulation through emulsion-based methods has been pondered over the years. Although several microemulsification techniques have been employed for the microcapsule’s synthesis, there are still no clear guidelines regarding the suitability of one technique over the others or the impacts on the morphological and physicochemical stability of the final particles. Therefore, in this systematic study, we investigated the influence of synthesis parameters on the fabrication of emulsion-based microcapsules concerning morphological and physicochemical properties. Using poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) microcapsules as a model system, and after determining the optimal core/shell ratio, we tested three different microemulsification techniques (magnetic stirring, ultrasonication, and mechanical stirring) and two different cargo types (100% TEGDMA (Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and 80% TEGDMA + 20% DMAM (N,N-Dimethylacrylamide)). The resulting microcapsules were characterized via optical and scanning electron microscopies, followed by size distribution analysis. The encapsulation efficiency was obtained through the extraction method, and the percentage reaction yield was calculated. Physicochemical properties were assessed by incubating the microcapsules under different osmotic pressures for 1 day and 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The data were analyzed statistically with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α = 0.05). Overall, the mechanical stirring resulted in the most homogeneous and stable microcapsules, with an increased reaction yield from 100% to 50% in comparison with ultrasonication and magnetic methods, respectively. The average microcapsule diameter ranged from 5 to 450 µm, with the smallest ones in the ultrasonication and the largest ones in the magnetic stirring groups. The water affinities of the encapsulated cargo influenced the microcapsule formation and stability, with the incorporation of DMAM leading to more homogeneous and stable microcapsules. Environmental osmotic pressure led to cargo loss or the selective swelling of the shells. In summary, this systematic investigation provides insights and highlights commonly overlooked factors that can influence microcapsule fabrication and guide the choice based on a diligent analysis of therapeutic niche requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art in Biomaterials for Drug Delivery)
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21 pages, 5086 KiB  
Article
Cell Instructive Behavior of Composite Scaffolds in a Co-Culture of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
by Georgia-Ioanna Kontogianni, Amedeo Franco Bonatti, Carmelo De Maria, Raasti Naseem, Catarina Coelho, Kalliopi Alpantaki, Aristea Batsali, Charalampos Pontikoglou, Paulo Quadros, Kenneth Dalgarno, Giovanni Vozzi, Chiara Vitale-Brovarone and Maria Chatzinikolaidou
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050116 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1107
Abstract
The in vitro evaluation of 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in mono-cultures is a common practice; however, it does not represent the native complex nature of bone tissue. Co-cultures of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, without the addition of stimulating agents for monitoring cellular [...] Read more.
The in vitro evaluation of 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in mono-cultures is a common practice; however, it does not represent the native complex nature of bone tissue. Co-cultures of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, without the addition of stimulating agents for monitoring cellular cross-talk, remains a challenge. In this study, a growth factor-free co-culture of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) has been established and used for the evaluation of 3D-printed scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The scaffolds were produced from PLLA/PCL/PHBV polymeric blends, with two composite materials produced through the addition of 2.5% w/v nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) or strontium-substituted nanohydroxyapatite (Sr-nHA). Cell morphology data showed that hPBMCs remained undifferentiated in co-culture, while no obvious differences were observed in the mono- and co-cultures of hBM-MSCs. A significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteogenic gene expression was observed in co-culture on Sr-nHA-containing scaffolds. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and osteoclastogenic gene expression displayed significantly suppressed levels in co-culture on Sr-nHA-containing scaffolds. Interestingly, mono-cultures of hPBMCs on Sr-nHA-containing scaffolds indicated a delay in osteoclasts formation, as evidenced from TRAP activity and gene expression, demonstrating that strontium acts as an osteoclastogenesis inhibitor. This co-culture study presents an effective 3D model to evaluate the regenerative capacity of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, thus minimizing time-consuming and costly in vivo experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biopolymers in Biomedical Application)
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13 pages, 3439 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Inter-Tooth Distance and Proximal Axial Wall Height of Prepared Teeth on the Scanning Accuracy of Intraoral Scanners
by So-Yeun Kim, Keunbada Son, Soo Kyum Bihn and Kyu-Bok Lee
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050115 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 793
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the effect of the height of the proximal axial wall of the prepared tooth and the distance between the adjacent tooth and the prepared tooth on the scan accuracy of intraoral scanners. Ten working casts with maxillary first [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the effect of the height of the proximal axial wall of the prepared tooth and the distance between the adjacent tooth and the prepared tooth on the scan accuracy of intraoral scanners. Ten working casts with maxillary first molars prepared to receive zirconia crowns were randomly obtained from a dental clinic. Each of the 10 casts was scanned using two intraoral scanners (i700; MEDIT and CS3600; Carestream; computer-aided design [CAD] test model, CTM; N = 15 per working cast) 15 times per scanner. Individual dies of the prepared teeth were fabricated, and high-precision scan data were acquired using a laboratory scanner (CAD reference model, CRM; N = 1). CTMs were aligned relative to the prepared tooth of CRMs by using three-dimensional inspection software (Ver 2018.1.0; Control X; 3D Systems). Data were statistically analyzed using an independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance for between-group comparisons (α = 0.05). The inaccuracy in the proximal regions (mesial or distal) of the prepared tooth was higher than that in the buccal and lingual regions (p < 0.05). The scan accuracy was not correlated with the variables when the distance between the adjacent tooth and the prepared tooth was ≥2.0 mm and the height of the proximal axial wall of the prepared tooth was <3.0 mm (p > 0.05). Therefore, an excellent scan accuracy can be obtained using an intraoral scanner when the distance between the adjacent tooth and the prepared tooth is ≥2.0 mm and the proximal axial wall height of the prepared tooth is <3.0 mm. Full article
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17 pages, 3913 KiB  
Article
Apatite-Forming Ability and Visible Light-Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of CuO-Supported TiO2 Formed on Titanium by Chemical and Thermal Treatments
by Po-Cheng Sung, Taishi Yokoi, Masaya Shimabukuro, Takayuki Mokudai and Masakazu Kawashita
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050114 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Titanium with apatite-forming ability as well as antibacterial activity is useful as a component of antibacterial dental implants. When Ti was subjected to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), copper acetate (Cu(OAc)2), and heat (H2O2-Cu(OAc)2 [...] Read more.
Titanium with apatite-forming ability as well as antibacterial activity is useful as a component of antibacterial dental implants. When Ti was subjected to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), copper acetate (Cu(OAc)2), and heat (H2O2-Cu(OAc)2-heat) treatments, a network structure of anatase and rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) and fine copper oxide (CuO) particles was formed on the Ti surface. The resulting samples accumulated a dense and uniform apatite layer on the surface when incubated in simulated body fluid and showed enhanced antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus under visible-light irradiation. Electron spin resonance spectra of H2O2-Cu(OAc)2-heat-treated samples showed that hydroxyl radicals (·OH) were generated from the samples, and the concentration of ·OH increased with increasing Cu concentration of the Cu(OAc)2 solution. The enhanced antibacterial activity of these samples under visible-light irradiation may be attributable to the generation of ·OH from samples. These results suggest that Ti implants obtained using H2O2-Cu(OAc)2-heat treatments and subjected to regular or on-demand visible-light irradiation may provide a decreased risk of peri-implantitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Biomedical Materials and Their Applications)
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18 pages, 7401 KiB  
Article
Hydrogels and Carbon Nanotubes: Composite Electrode Materials for Long-Term Electrocardiography Monitoring
by Leszek Kolodziej, Olga Iwasińska-Kowalska, Grzegorz Wróblewski, Tomasz Giżewski, Małgorzata Jakubowska and Agnieszka Lekawa-Raus
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(5), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15050113 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 843
Abstract
This paper presents methods for developing high-performance interface electrode materials designed to enhance signal collection efficacy during long-term (over 24 h) electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring. The electrode materials are fabricated by integrating commercial ECG liquid hydrogels with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which are widely utilized [...] Read more.
This paper presents methods for developing high-performance interface electrode materials designed to enhance signal collection efficacy during long-term (over 24 h) electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring. The electrode materials are fabricated by integrating commercial ECG liquid hydrogels with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which are widely utilized in dry-electrode technologies and extensively discussed in the current scientific literature. The composite materials are either prepared by dispersing CNTs within the commercial liquid hydrogel matrix or by encasing the hydrogels in macroscopic CNT films. Both approaches ensure the optimal wetting of the epidermis via the hydrogels, while the CNTs reduce material impedance and stabilize the drying process. The resulting electrode materials maintain their softness, allowing for micro-conformal skin attachment, and are biocompatible. Empirical testing confirms that the ECG electrodes employing these hybrid hydrogels adhere to relevant standards for durations exceeding 24 h. These innovative hybrid solutions merge the benefits of both wet and dry ECG electrode technologies, potentially facilitating the extended monitoring of ECG signals and thus advancing the diagnosis and treatment of various cardiac conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials and Devices for Healthcare Applications)
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