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Volume 11, December

J. Funct. Biomater., Volume 12, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 15 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Responses to Functional Biomaterials Including Mineralized Trioxide Aggregates
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010015 (registering DOI) - 24 Feb 2021
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Abstract
Introduction: Many studies in stem cell biology have demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) may be highly proliferative and capable of pluripotent differentiation into many different tissue types. Recent advances in stem cell research have outlined methods for directing in vitro or [...] Read more.
Introduction: Many studies in stem cell biology have demonstrated that dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) may be highly proliferative and capable of pluripotent differentiation into many different tissue types. Recent advances in stem cell research have outlined methods for directing in vitro or in vivo growth, viability, and proliferation, as well as differentiation of DPSC—although much remains to be discovered. Based upon this information, the primary objective of this study was to understand the functional biomaterials needed to more effectively direct DPSC viability, growth, and proliferation. Methods: Using an approved protocol, previously collected and isolated samples of DPSC from an existing repository were used. Previously established stem cell biomarkers (Sox-2, Oct-4, NANOG) from each isolate were correlated with their proliferation rates or doubling times to categorize them into rapid, intermediate, or slow-dividing multipotent DPSC. Growth factors and other functional dental biomaterials were subsequently tested to evaluate DPSC responses in proliferation, viability, and morphology. Results: Differential responses were observed among DPSC isolates to growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2), and functional biomaterials such as mineralized trioxide aggregates (MTA). The responsiveness of DPSC isolates did not correlate with any single factor but rather with a combination of proliferation rate and biomarker expression. Conclusions: These data strongly suggest that some, but not all, DPSC isolates are capable of a robust and significant in vitro response to differentiation stimuli, although this response is not universal. Although some biomarkers and phenotypes that distinguish and characterize these DPSC isolates may facilitate the ability to predict growth, viability, and differentiation potential, more research is needed to determine the other intrinsic and extrinsic factors that may contribute to and modulate these DPSC responses to these functional biomaterials for biotechnology and bioengineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials)
Open AccessReview
Bioactive Polymeric Materials for the Advancement of Regenerative Medicine
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010014 - 20 Feb 2021
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Abstract
Biopolymers are widely accepted natural materials in regenerative medicine, and further development of their bioactivities and discoveries on their composition/function relationships could greatly advance the field. However, a concise insight on commonly investigated biopolymers, their current applications and outlook of their modifications for [...] Read more.
Biopolymers are widely accepted natural materials in regenerative medicine, and further development of their bioactivities and discoveries on their composition/function relationships could greatly advance the field. However, a concise insight on commonly investigated biopolymers, their current applications and outlook of their modifications for multibioactivity are scarce. This review bridges this gap for professionals and especially freshmen in the field who are also interested in modification methods not yet in commercial use. A series of polymeric materials in research and development uses are presented as well as challenges that limit their efficacy in tissue regeneration are discussed. Finally, their roles in the regeneration of select tissues including the skin, bone, cartilage, and tendon are highlighted along with modifiable biopolymer moieties for different bioactivities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Studies on Graphene-Reinforced 3D Products Obtained by the One-Stage Sacrificial Template Method for Bone Reconstruction Applications
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010013 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 198
Abstract
The bone remodeling field has shifted focus towards the delineation of products with two main critical attributes: internal architectures capable to promote fast cell colonization and good mechanical performance. In this paper, Luffa-fibers and graphene nanoplatelets were proposed as porogen template and [...] Read more.
The bone remodeling field has shifted focus towards the delineation of products with two main critical attributes: internal architectures capable to promote fast cell colonization and good mechanical performance. In this paper, Luffa-fibers and graphene nanoplatelets were proposed as porogen template and mechanical reinforcing agent, respectively, in view of framing 3D products by a one-stage polymer-free process. The ceramic matrix was prepared through a reproducible technology, developed for the conversion of marble resources into calcium phosphates (CaP) powders. After the graphene incorporation (by mechanical and ultrasonication mixing) into the CaP matrix, and Luffa-fibers addition, the samples were evaluated in both as-admixed and thermally-treated form (compact/porous products) by complementary structural, morphological, and compositional techniques. The results confirmed the benefits of the two agents’ addition upon the compact products’ micro-porosity and the global mechanical features, inferred by compressive strength and elastic modulus determinations. For the porous products, overall optimal results were obtained at a graphene amount of <1 wt.%. Further, no influence of graphene on fibers’ ability to generate at high temperatures internal interconnected-channels-arrays was depicted. Moreover, its incorporation led to a general preservation of structural composition and stability for both the as-admixed and thermally-treated products. The developed CaP-reinforced structures sustain the premises for prospective non- and load-bearing biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics and Bioactive Glass-Based Materials)
Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Assessment of the In Vitro Corrosion Resistance of Biomimetic ACP Coatings Electrodeposited from an Acetate Bath
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010012 - 07 Feb 2021
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Calcium phosphate coatings are able to improve the osseointegration process due to their chemical composition, which is similar to that of bone tissues. In this work, to increase the long-term corrosion resistance and to improve the osseointegration process of commercially pure titanium Grade [...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate coatings are able to improve the osseointegration process due to their chemical composition, which is similar to that of bone tissues. In this work, to increase the long-term corrosion resistance and to improve the osseointegration process of commercially pure titanium Grade 4 (CpTi G4), biomimetic amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coatings were electrodeposited for the first time from an acetate bath with a pH level of 7.0 and a Ca:P ratio of 1.67. ACP coatings were obtained on CpTi G4 substrate subjected to sandblasting and autoclaving using electrochemically assisted deposition at a potential of −3 V relative to the open circuit potential for 30 min at room temperature. SEM, EDS, 2D roughness profiles, amplitude-sensitive eddy current method, and Kelvin scanning probe were used for the surface characterization of the biomaterial under study. In vitro corrosion resistance tests were conducted for 21 days in artificial saliva using open circuit potential, polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The passive-transpassive behavior was revealed for the obtained ACP coatings. The long-term corrosion resistance test showed a deterioration of the protective properties for CpTi G4 uncoated and coated with ACP with immersion time. The mechanism and kinetics of the pitting corrosion on the CpTi G4|TiO2|ACP coating system are discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials for Medical and Biotechnological Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrospun Poly(butylene-adipate-co-terephthalate)/Nano-hyDroxyapatite/Graphene Nanoribbon Scaffolds Improved the In Vivo Osteogenesis of the Neoformed Bone
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010011 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Electrospun ultrathin fibrous scaffold filed with synthetic nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and graphene nanoribbons (GNR) has bioactive and osteoconductive properties and is a plausible strategy to improve bone regeneration. Poly(butylene-adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) has been studied as fibrous scaffolds due to its low crystallinity, faster biodegradability, and [...] Read more.
Electrospun ultrathin fibrous scaffold filed with synthetic nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and graphene nanoribbons (GNR) has bioactive and osteoconductive properties and is a plausible strategy to improve bone regeneration. Poly(butylene-adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) has been studied as fibrous scaffolds due to its low crystallinity, faster biodegradability, and good mechanical properties; however, its potential for in vivo applications remains underexplored. We proposed the application of electrospun PBAT with high contents of incorporated nHAp and nHAp/GNR nanoparticles as bone grafts. Ultrathin PBAT, PBAT/nHAp, and PBAT/nHAp/GNR fibers were produced using an electrospinning apparatus. The produced fibers were characterized morphologically and structurally using scanning electron (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron (TEM) microscopies, respectively. Mechanical properties were analyzed using a texturometer. All scaffolds were implanted into critical tibia defects in rats and analyzed after two weeks using radiography, microcomputed tomography, histological, histomorphometric, and biomechanical analyses. The results showed through SEM and high-resolution TEM characterized the average diameters of the fibers (ranged from 0.208 µm ± 0.035 to 0.388 µm ± 0.087) and nHAp (crystallite around 0.28, 0.34, and 0.69 nm) and nHAp/GNR (200–300 nm) nanoparticles distribution into PBAT matrices. Ultrathin fibers were obtained, and the incorporated nHAp and nHAp/GNR nanoparticles were well distributed into PBAT matrices. The addition of nHAp and nHAp/GNR nanoparticles improved the elastic modulus of the ultrathin fibers compared to neat PBAT. High loads of nHAp/GNR (PBATnH5G group) improved the in vivo lamellar bone formation promoting greater radiographic density, trabecular number and stiffness in the defect area 2 weeks after implantation than control and PBAT groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Implant Placement Following Crestal Sinus Lift with Sequential Drills and Osteotomes: Five Years after Final Loading Results from a Retrospective Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010010 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 201
Abstract
The aim of this retrospective study was to clinically evaluate the five-year outcomes of implants placed following a combined approach to the sinus, consisting of sequential drills and osteotomes. Medical records of patients with implants placed in combination with crestal sinus lift using [...] Read more.
The aim of this retrospective study was to clinically evaluate the five-year outcomes of implants placed following a combined approach to the sinus, consisting of sequential drills and osteotomes. Medical records of patients with implants placed in combination with crestal sinus lift using sequential drills and osteotomes, with a residual alveolar bone crest between 4 to 8 mm, and a follow-up of at least five years after final loading, were evaluated. Outcomes were implant and prosthetic survival and success rates, any complication, and marginal bone loss. Data from 96 patients (53 women and 43 men; mean age 54.7 years; range 23–79 years) were collected. A total of 105 single implants were analyzed. After five years of function, two implants were lost and two prostheses failed. No major biological or prosthetic complications occurred. At the five-year examination, the marginal bone loss was 1.24 ± 0.28 mm. Within the limitations of this retrospective study it can be concluded that implants placed following a combined approach to the sinus consisting of sequential drills and osteotomes seem to be a viable option for the treatment of posterior atrophic edentulous maxilla. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Biomaterials for Dental Implants)
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Open AccessArticle
Drastic Reduction of Bacterial, Fungal and Viral Pathogen Titers by Cuprous Oxide Impregnated Medical Textiles
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010009 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Hospital patients and personnel are at risk of nosocomial viral infections, as clearly manifested during the COVID-19 pandemic. Transmission of respiratory viral pathogens can occur through contaminated surfaces, including from medical textiles. Copper has potent biocidal properties, and cuprous oxide impregnated medical textiles [...] Read more.
Hospital patients and personnel are at risk of nosocomial viral infections, as clearly manifested during the COVID-19 pandemic. Transmission of respiratory viral pathogens can occur through contaminated surfaces, including from medical textiles. Copper has potent biocidal properties, and cuprous oxide impregnated medical textiles (CMT) reduce hospital-acquired bacterial infections. In the current study we confirm the antimicrobial properties of CMT and determine their capacity to reduce infectious titres of human coronavirus (HCoV-229E) in an independent laboratory. The antibacterial and antiviral activities of the CMT were determined according to AATCC TM100-2019 and ISO 18184:2019 standards, respectively. The CMT reduced by 4 logs the viable titers of MRSA, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida auris after 2 h of incubation. Viable titers of Clostridium difficile were reduced by 2.3, 3, and 4 logs after 2, 6, and 18 h, respectively. Infectious titers of HCoV-229E exposed to CMT for 2 h were reduced by 2.8 and 4 logs (99.85% and 99.99% reductions) as compared to Time-0 control and initial inoculum, respectively. The CMT retain their antibacterial efficacy even after 100 industrial washings. Use of cuprous oxide impregnated textiles in clinical settings may reduce not only hospital acquired infections caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens, but also, and equally important, those caused by coronavirus and other viruses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Poly(methyl methacrylate) Bone Cement Composite Can Be Refilled with Antibiotics after Implantation in Femur or Soft Tissue
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010008 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
While periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) result in a small percentage of patients following arthroplasties, they are challenging to treat if they spread into bone and soft tissue. Treatment involves delivering antibiotics using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. However, antibiotic release is insufficient for [...] Read more.
While periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) result in a small percentage of patients following arthroplasties, they are challenging to treat if they spread into bone and soft tissue. Treatment involves delivering antibiotics using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. However, antibiotic release is insufficient for prolonged infections. Previous work demonstrated efficacy of incorporating insoluble cyclodextrin (CD) microparticles into PMMA to improve antibiotic release and allow for post-implantation drug refilling to occur in a tissue-mimicking model. To simulate how antibiotic refilling may be possible in more physiologically relevant models, this work investigated development of bone and muscle refilling models. The bone refilling model involved embedding PMMA-CD into rabbit femur and administering antibiotic via intraosseous infusion. Muscle tissue refilling model involved implanting PMMA-CD beads in bovine muscle tissue and administering antibiotic via tissue injection. Duration of antimicrobial activity of refilled PMMA-CD was evaluated. PMMA-CD composite in bone and muscle tissue models was capable of being refilled with antibiotics and resulted in prolonged antimicrobial activity. PMMA-CD provided sustained and on-demand antimicrobial activity without removal of implant if infection develops. Intraosseous infusion appeared to be a viable technique to enable refilling of PMMA-CD after implantation in bone, reporting for the first time the ability to refill PMMA in bone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Temporomandibular Joint Prostheses: Optimal Materials for the Optimal Stomatognathic System Performance—Preliminary Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010007 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 239
Abstract
The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate alloplastic Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Prostheses against other treatment modalities regarding the jaw kinematics. Six patients with Temporomandibular Joint Prostheses, four with mandibular ramus Patient-Specific Implant (PSI) with condylar head preservation, and four after mandibular [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate alloplastic Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Prostheses against other treatment modalities regarding the jaw kinematics. Six patients with Temporomandibular Joint Prostheses, four with mandibular ramus Patient-Specific Implant (PSI) with condylar head preservation, and four after mandibular condylectomy were evaluated by the means of axiography (Cadiax Compact 2), which is the noninvasive three-dimensional study of condylar movements. The patients were also evaluated clinically for the mandibular movements. The study revealed that the significant movement limitations occurred bilaterally in patients fitted with TMJ prosthesis. For the protrusion movement, the vector length of the movement (L) for the TMJ prosthesis was 0.31 vs. 3.01 mm for the PSI (Kruskal–Wallis chi-squared = 9.1667, df = 2, p-value = 0.01022, post hoc Dunn p-value = 0.015) and for the laterotrusion to the operated side, the length of the vector (L) was 0.66 vs. 3.35 mm, respectively. Statistically significant differences between groups were most frequent for the laterotrusion to the unoperated side. The study shows that a further development on TMJ Prostheses geometry and materials is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Dental Implants and Biomaterials)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Journal of Functional Biomaterials in 2020
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010006 - 24 Jan 2021
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Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Journal of Functional Biomaterials maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Functional Properties of Low-Modulus PMMA Bone Cements Containing Linoleic Acid
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010005 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 258
Abstract
Acrylic bone cements modified with linoleic acid are a promising low-modulus alternative to traditional high-modulus bone cements. However, several key properties remain unexplored, including the effect of autoclave sterilization and the potential use of low-modulus cements in other applications than vertebral augmentation. In [...] Read more.
Acrylic bone cements modified with linoleic acid are a promising low-modulus alternative to traditional high-modulus bone cements. However, several key properties remain unexplored, including the effect of autoclave sterilization and the potential use of low-modulus cements in other applications than vertebral augmentation. In this work, we evaluate the effect of sterilization on the structure and stability of linoleic acid, as well as in the handling properties, glass transition temperature, mechanical properties, and screw augmentation potential of low-modulus cement containing the fatty acid. Neither 1H NMR nor SFC-MS/MS analysis showed any detectable differences in autoclaved linoleic acid compared to fresh one. The peak polymerization temperature of the low-modulus cement was much lower (28–30 °C) than that of the high-modulus cement (67 °C), whereas the setting time remained comparable (20–25 min). The Tg of the low-modulus cement was lower (75–78 °C) than that of the high-stiffness cement (103 °C). It was shown that sterilization of linoleic acid by autoclaving did not significantly affect the functional properties of low-modulus PMMA bone cement, making the component suitable for sterile production. Ultimately, the low-modulus cement exhibited handling and mechanical properties that more closely match those of osteoporotic vertebral bone with a screw holding capacity of under 2000 N, making it a promising alternative for use in combination with orthopedic hardware in applications where high-stiffness augmentation materials can result in undesired effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Consequences of Dynamically Loaded NiTi Wires under Typical Actuator Conditions in Rehabilitation and Neuroscience
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010004 - 08 Jan 2021
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Abstract
In the field of rehabilitation and neuroscience, shape memory alloys play a crucial role as lightweight actuators. Devices are exploiting the shape memory effect by transforming heat into mechanical work. In rehabilitation applications, dynamic loading of the respective device occurs, which in turn [...] Read more.
In the field of rehabilitation and neuroscience, shape memory alloys play a crucial role as lightweight actuators. Devices are exploiting the shape memory effect by transforming heat into mechanical work. In rehabilitation applications, dynamic loading of the respective device occurs, which in turn influences the mechanical consequences of the phase transforming alloy. Hence in this work, dynamic thermomechanical material behavior of temperature-triggered phase transforming NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) wires with different chemical compositions and geometries was experimentally investigated. Storage modulus and mechanical loss factor of NiTi alloys at different temperatures and loading frequencies were analyzed under force-controlled conditions. Counterintuitive storage modulus- and loss factor-dependent trends regarding the loading frequency dependency of the mechanical properties on the materials’ composition and geometry were, hence, obtained. It was revealed that loss factors showed a pronounced loading frequency dependency, whereas the storage modulus was not affected. It was shown that force-controlled conditions led to a lower storage modulus than expected. Furthermore, it turned out that a simple empirical relation could capture the characteristic temperature dependency of the storage modulus, which is an important input relation for modeling the rehabilitation device behavior under different dynamic and temperature loading conditions, taking directly into account the material behavior of the shape memory alloy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Micro-Nano Surface Characterization and Bioactivity of a Calcium Phosphate-Incorporated Titanium Implant Surface
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010003 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 321
Abstract
The surface topography of dental implants and micro-nano surface characterization have gained particular interest for the improvement of the osseointegration phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface micro-nanomorphology and bioactivity (apatite forming ability) of Ossean® surface, a resorbable [...] Read more.
The surface topography of dental implants and micro-nano surface characterization have gained particular interest for the improvement of the osseointegration phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface micro-nanomorphology and bioactivity (apatite forming ability) of Ossean® surface, a resorbable blast medium (RBM) blasted surface further processed through the incorporation of a low amount of calcium phosphate. The implants were analyzed using environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM), connected to Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), field emission gun SEM-EDX (SEM-FEG) micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after immersion in weekly refreshed Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 28 days. The analysis of the samples before immersion showed a moderately rough surface, with micropits and microgrooves distributed on all of the surface; EDX microanalysis revealed the constitutional elements of the implant surface, namely titanium (Ti), aluminum (Al) and vanadium (V). Limited traces of calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were detected, attributable to the incorporated calcium phosphate. No traces of calcium phosphate phases were detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy. ESEM analysis of the implant aged in HBSS for 28 days revealed a significantly different surface, compared to the implant before immersion. At original magnifications <2000×, a homogeneous mineral layer was present on all the surface, covering all the pits and microgrooves. At original magnifications ≥10,000×, the mineral layer revealed the presence of small microspherulites. The structure of these spherulites (approx. 2 µm diameter) was observed in nanoimmersion mode revealing a regular shape with a hairy-like contour. Micro-Raman analysis showed the presence of B-type carbonated apatite on the implant surface, which was further confirmed by XPS analysis. This implant showed a micro-nano-textured surface supporting the formation of a biocompatible apatite when immersed in HBSS. These properties may likely favor bone anchorage and healing by stimulation of mineralizing cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bioceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Biocompatibility and Biological Corrosion Resistance of Ti–39Nb–6Zr+0.45Al Implant Alloy
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010002 - 29 Dec 2020
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Titanium and titanium alloys are promising implant metallic materials because of their high strengths, low elastic moduli, high corrosion resistances, and excellent biocompatibilities. A large difference in elastic modulus between the implant material and bone leads to a stress shielding effect, which increases [...] Read more.
Titanium and titanium alloys are promising implant metallic materials because of their high strengths, low elastic moduli, high corrosion resistances, and excellent biocompatibilities. A large difference in elastic modulus between the implant material and bone leads to a stress shielding effect, which increases the probability of implant separation or decrease in the bone density around it. Thus, a lower elastic modulus is required for a better implant metallic material. β titanium has a lower elastic modulus and high strength and can reduce the probability of the stress shielding effect. In this study, the applicability of the Ti–39Nb–6Zr+0.45Al alloy, obtained by adding a small amount of aluminum to the Ti–39Nb–6Zr alloy, as a biomedical implant material was evaluated. The mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the alloy were evaluated. The biocompatibility of Ti–39Nb–6Zr+0.45Al was similar to that of Ti–39Nb–6Zr according to in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition, the biological corrosion resistances were evaluated through a corrosion test using a 0.9% NaCl solution, which is equivalent to physiological saline. The corrosion resistance was improved by the addition of Al. The yield strength of the Ti–39Nb–6Zr+0.45Al alloy was improved by approximately 20%. The excellent biocompatibility confirmed its feasibility for use as a biomedical implant material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Varying the Polishing Protocol Influences the Color Stability and Surface Roughness of Bulk-Fill Resin-Based Composites
J. Funct. Biomater. 2021, 12(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb12010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Surface properties of composites such as roughness and color impact periodontal health and aesthetic outcomes. Novel bulk-fill composites with improved functionality are being introduced and, in light of the existing variety of finishing/polishing procedures, research of their surface properties is warranted. Sixty discs [...] Read more.
Surface properties of composites such as roughness and color impact periodontal health and aesthetic outcomes. Novel bulk-fill composites with improved functionality are being introduced and, in light of the existing variety of finishing/polishing procedures, research of their surface properties is warranted. Sixty discs were prepared from bulk-fill composites (Filtek™ Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative and Fill-Up™) and incremental-fill Filtek™ Z250. They were further divided according to different polishing procedures (n = 5): three multi-step polishing procedures or finishing with a bur (control). Surface roughness (Ra) was measured using an atomic force microscope (The AFM Workshop TT-AFM). A spectrophotometer (Spectroshade Micro Optic) was used to determine color stability, after exposure to a coffee solution. Data were analyzed using two-way MANOVA (significance level of 5%). Resin composite type, polishing procedure, and their interaction had a statistically significant effect on surface roughness (p < 0.001) and color change (p < 0.001). Fill-Up™ exhibited the highest surface roughness and greatest color change. Differences in color change were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Filtek™ Bulk Fill registered the lowest surface roughness and color change, after the three-step polishing procedure. Both parameters were significantly correlated (ρ = 0.754, p < 0.001) and found to be material dependent and polishing-procedure dependent. Higher surface roughness relates to greater color changes. Full article
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