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Open AccessArticle

Approximate Mortality Risks between Hyperuricemia and Diabetes in the United States

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Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Chiayi and Wanqiao Branch, Chiayi 60090, Taiwan
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Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Yuanshan and Suao Branch, Yilan 26444, Taiwan
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Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan
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Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40705, Taiwan
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Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122127
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 5 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
Aim: This study aimed to compare mortality risks across uric acid (UA) levels between non-diabetes adults and participants with diabetes and to investigate the association between hyperuricemia and mortality risks in low-risk adults. Methods: We analyzed data from adults aged >18 years without coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease (n = 29,226) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2010) and the associated mortality data (up to December 2011). We used the Cox proportional hazards models to examine the risk of all-cause and cause-specific (cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer) mortality at different UA levels between adults with and without diabetes. Results: Over a median follow-up of 6.6 years, 2069 participants died (495 from CVD and 520 from cancers). In non-diabetes adults at UA ≥ 5 mg/dL, all-cause and CVD mortality risks increased across higher UA levels (p-for-trend = 0.037 and 0.058, respectively). The lowest all-cause mortality risk in participants with diabetes was at the UA level of 5–7 mg/dL. We set the non-diabetes participants with UA levels of <7 mg/dL as a reference group. Without considering the effect of glycemic control, the all-cause mortality risk in non-diabetes participants with UA levels of ≥7 mg/dL was equivalent to risk among diabetes adults with UA levels of <7 mg/dL (hazard ratio = 1.44 vs. 1.57, p = 0.49). A similar result was shown in CVD mortality risk (hazard ratio = 1.80 vs. 2.06, p = 0.56). Conclusion: Hyperuricemia may be an indicator to manage multifaceted cardiovascular risk factors in low-risk adults without diabetes, but further studies and replication are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperuricemia; diabetes; cardiovascular disease; mortality risk; uric acid hyperuricemia; diabetes; cardiovascular disease; mortality risk; uric acid
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Chen, P.-H.; Chen, Y.-W.; Liu, W.-J.; Hsu, S.-W.; Chen, C.-H.; Lee, C.-L. Approximate Mortality Risks between Hyperuricemia and Diabetes in the United States. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 2127.

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