Next Article in Journal
Approximate Mortality Risks between Hyperuricemia and Diabetes in the United States
Previous Article in Journal
The Rise of Mitochondria in Peripheral Arterial Disease Physiopathology: Experimental and Clinical Data
Open AccessArticle

The Prognostic Effect of Circadian Blood Pressure Pattern on Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcome is Independent of Left Ventricular Remodeling

1
Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburgerplatz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
2
Clinical Research Unit, University of Milan-Bicocca and Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Viale della Resistenza 23, 20036 Meda, Italy
3
Department of Cardiology, University Clinical Hospital Center “Dr. Dragisa Misovic—Dedinje”, Heroja Milana Tepica 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
4
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Clinica Medica, University Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy
5
Clinic of Cardiology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Koste Todorovic 8, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122126
Received: 5 November 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
We aimed to investigate the predictive value of 24 h blood pressure (BP) patterns on adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcome in the initially untreated hypertensive patients during long-term follow-up. This study included 533 initially untreated hypertensive patients who were involved in this study in the period between 2007 and 2012. All participants underwent laboratory analysis, 24 h BP monitoring, and echocardiographic examination at baseline. The patients were followed for a median period of nine years. The adverse outcome was defined as the hospitalization due to CV events (atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization, heart failure, stroke, or CV death). During the nine-year follow-up period, adverse CV events occurred in 85 hypertensive patients. Nighttime SBP, non-dipping BP pattern, LV hypertrophy (LVH), left atrial enlargement (LAE), and LV diastolic dysfunction (LV DD) were risk factors for occurrence of CV events. However, nighttime SBP, non-dipping BP pattern, LVH, and LV DD were the only independent predictors of CV events. When all four BP pattern were included in the model, non-dipping and reverse dipping BP patterns were associated with CV events, but only reverse-dipping BP pattern was independent predictor of CV events. The current study showed that reverse-dipping BP pattern was predictor of adverse CV events independently of nighttime SBP and LV remodeling during long-term follow-up. The assessment of BP patterns has very important role in the long-time prediction in hypertensive population.
Keywords: hypertension; left ventricle; hypertrophy; diastolic dysfunction; non-dipping; reverse dipping hypertension; left ventricle; hypertrophy; diastolic dysfunction; non-dipping; reverse dipping
MDPI and ACS Style

Tadic, M.; Cuspidi, C.; Celic, V.; Pencic, B.; Mancia, G.; Grassi, G.; Stankovic, G.; Ivanovic, B. The Prognostic Effect of Circadian Blood Pressure Pattern on Long-Term Cardiovascular Outcome is Independent of Left Ventricular Remodeling. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 2126.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop