Next Article in Journal
Sorption/Diffusion Contributions to the Gas Permeation Properties of Bi-Soft Segment Polyurethane/Polycaprolactone Membranes for Membrane Blood Oxygenators
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Humidity on CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 Separation Using Novel Robust Mixed Matrix Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes: Experimental and Model Evaluation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Simple and Precise Approach for Determination of Ohmic Contribution of Diaphragms in Alkaline Water Electrolysis
Open AccessReview

Design of Monovalent Ion Selective Membranes for Reducing the Impacts of Multivalent Ions in Reverse Electrodialysis

1
Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Science, Jigjiga University, P.O. Box 1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia
2
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LEPMI, 38 000 Grenoble, France
3
Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Building 310, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
4
School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2020, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10010007
Received: 1 December 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 December 2019 / Published: 31 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Electrolysis, Fuel Cells and Batteries)
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) represents one of the most promising membrane-based technologies for clean and renewable energy production from mixing water solutions. However, the presence of multivalent ions in natural water drastically reduces system performance, in particular, the open-circuit voltage (OCV) and the output power. This effect is largely described by the “uphill transport” phenomenon, in which multivalent ions are transported against the concentration gradient. In this work, recent advances in the investigation of the impact of multivalent ions on power generation by RED are systematically reviewed along with possible strategies to overcome this challenge. In particular, the use of monovalent ion-selective membranes represents a promising alternative to reduce the negative impact of multivalent ions given the availability of low-cost materials and an easy route of membrane synthesis. A thorough assessment of the materials and methodologies used to prepare monovalent selective ion exchange membranes (both cation and anion exchange membranes) for applications in (reverse) electrodialysis is performed. Moreover, transport mechanisms under conditions of extreme salinity gradient are analyzed and compared for a better understanding of the design criteria. The ultimate goal of the present work is to propose a prospective research direction on the development of new membrane materials for effective implementation of RED under natural feed conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: salinity gradient power; reverse electrodialysis; uphill transport; monovalent selective membranes; multivalent ions salinity gradient power; reverse electrodialysis; uphill transport; monovalent selective membranes; multivalent ions
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Besha, A.T.; Tsehaye, M.T.; Aili, D.; Zhang, W.; Tufa, R.A. Design of Monovalent Ion Selective Membranes for Reducing the Impacts of Multivalent Ions in Reverse Electrodialysis. Membranes 2020, 10, 7.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop