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Pneumococcal and Influenza Vaccination Rates and Pneumococcal Invasive Disease Rates Set Geographical and Ethnic Population Susceptibility to Serious COVID-19 Cases and Deaths

Department of Physiology, 567 Wilson Road, Room 1104 Biomedical and Physical Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Academic Editor: Ravikanth Nanduri
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050474
Received: 29 March 2021 / Revised: 1 May 2021 / Accepted: 5 May 2021 / Published: 8 May 2021
This study examines the relationship of pneumococcal vaccination rates, influenza, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccinations (DTP), polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), and Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (tuberculosis) vaccination rates to COVID-19 case and death rates for 51 nations that have high rates of COVID-19 testing and for which nearly complete childhood, at-risk adult and elderly pneumococcal vaccination data were available. The study is unique in a large number of nations examined, the range of vaccine controls, in testing effects of combinations of vaccinations, and in examining the relationship of COVID-19 and vaccination rates to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Analysis of Italian regions and the states of the United States were also performed. Significant positive correlations were found between IPD (but not lower respiratory infections) and COVID-19 rates, while significant negative correlations were found between pneumococcal vaccination and COVID-19 rates. Influenza and MMR vaccination rates were negatively correlated with lower respiratory infection (LRI) rates and may synergize with pneumococcal vaccination rates to protect against COVID-19. Pneumococcal and influenza vaccination rates were independent of other vaccination rates. These results suggest that endemic rates of bacterial pneumonias, for which pneumococci are a sentinel, may set regional and national susceptibility to severe COVID-19 disease and death. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; invasive pneumococcal disease; lower respiratory infections; pneumococcal vaccines; PCV13; PPV23; influenza vaccine; measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; BCG COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; invasive pneumococcal disease; lower respiratory infections; pneumococcal vaccines; PCV13; PPV23; influenza vaccine; measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; BCG
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MDPI and ACS Style

Root-Bernstein, R. Pneumococcal and Influenza Vaccination Rates and Pneumococcal Invasive Disease Rates Set Geographical and Ethnic Population Susceptibility to Serious COVID-19 Cases and Deaths. Vaccines 2021, 9, 474. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050474

AMA Style

Root-Bernstein R. Pneumococcal and Influenza Vaccination Rates and Pneumococcal Invasive Disease Rates Set Geographical and Ethnic Population Susceptibility to Serious COVID-19 Cases and Deaths. Vaccines. 2021; 9(5):474. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050474

Chicago/Turabian Style

Root-Bernstein, Robert. 2021. "Pneumococcal and Influenza Vaccination Rates and Pneumococcal Invasive Disease Rates Set Geographical and Ethnic Population Susceptibility to Serious COVID-19 Cases and Deaths" Vaccines 9, no. 5: 474. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050474

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