Next Article in Journal
Catalase-Like Antioxidant Activity is Unaltered in Hypochlorous Acid Oxidized Horse Heart Myoglobin
Next Article in Special Issue
Protein Oxidation Biomarkers and Myeloperoxidase Activation in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis
Previous Article in Journal
Metabolic Profiling of Buddleia indica Leaves using LC/MS and Evidence of their Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity Using Different In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Models
Previous Article in Special Issue
Impact of Melatonin Supplementation in Women with Unexplained Infertility Undergoing Fertility Treatment
Open AccessArticle

Glutathione Induced Immune-Stimulatory Activity by Promoting M1-Like Macrophages Polarization via Potential ROS Scavenging Capacity

1
Anti-Aging Research Center and Department of Biochemistry, College of Korean Medicine, Dong-eui University, Busan 47340, Korea
2
Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Dong-eui University, Busan 47340, Korea
3
Department of Korean Internal Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dong-eui University, Busan 47227, Korea
4
Department of Marine Life Sciences, School of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
5
Department of Parasitology and Genetics, College of Medicine, Kosin University, Busan 49104, Korea
6
Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
7
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
8
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Nursing, Healthcare Sciences & Human Ecology, Dong-eui University, Busan 47340, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work as first author.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(9), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8090413
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 15 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Health and Disease)
The present study investigated the immunomodulatory activity of reduced glutathione (GSH) by assessment of the macrophage polarization (MP)-mediated immune response in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, we identified the signal pathway associated with immune regulation by GSH. The expressions of MP-associated cytokines and chemokines were assessed using cytokine array, nCounter Sprit platform, ELISA and immunoblotting. Phagocytosis activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured using fluorescence-activated cell sorter. As results of the cytokine array and nCounter gene array, GSH not only up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins and tumor necrosis factor-α, but also overexpressed neutrophil-attracting chemokines. Furthermore, GSH significantly stimulated the production of immune mediators, including nitric oxide and PGE2, as well as phagocytosis activity through nuclear factor kappa B activation. In addition, GSH significantly decreased LPS-induced ROS generation, which was associated with an activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/ heme oxygenease-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway. Our results suggest that GSH has potential ROS scavenging capacity via the induction of Nrf2-mediated HO-1, and immune-enhancing activity by regulation of M1-like macrophage polarization, indicating that GSH may be a useful strategy to increase the human defense system. View Full-Text
Keywords: glutathione; reactive oxygen species; heme oxygenase-1; immune response; macrophage polarization; inflammatory cytokines; antioxidant glutathione; reactive oxygen species; heme oxygenase-1; immune response; macrophage polarization; inflammatory cytokines; antioxidant
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kwon, D.H.; Lee, H.; Park, C.; Hong, S.-H.; Hong, S.H.; Kim, G.-Y.; Cha, H.-J.; Kim, S.; Kim, H.-S.; Hwang, H.-J.; Choi, Y.H. Glutathione Induced Immune-Stimulatory Activity by Promoting M1-Like Macrophages Polarization via Potential ROS Scavenging Capacity. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 413.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop