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Associations between Dietary Polyphenols and Type 2 Diabetes in a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus Trial: Role of Body Mass Index and Sex

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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Unitat de Nutrició, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43204 Reus, Spain
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Nutrition Unit, University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, 43201 Reus, Spain
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Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), 43201 Reus, Spain
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Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, 24071 León, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, IDISNA, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Group, Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), 08007 Barcelona, Spain
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Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
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Miguel Hernandez University, ISABIAL-FISABIO, 03010 Alicante, Spain
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Bioaraba Health Research Institute; Osakidetza Basque Health Service, Araba University Hospital; University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU; 01009 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
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Department of Nursing. Institute of Biomedical Research in Málaga (IBIMA), University of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
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Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences, and Physiology, Center for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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Nutritional Genomics and Epigenomics Group, IMDEA Food, CEI UAM + CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria & Centro Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil (CHUIMI), Canarian Health Service, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Virgen de la Victoria Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA). University of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
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Department of Family Medicine, Research Unit, Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla, 41010 Sevilla, Spain
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Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge-Idibell-Universitat de Barcelona, 08908 Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain
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Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
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Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Division of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
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Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
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CIBER Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Endocrinology, Institut d’Investigacions Biomédiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Hospital Universitario Fundación Jimenez Díaz, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Lipid Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology), Hospital Reina Sofía, 31500 Tudela, Spain
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Centro Salud Raval-Elche, 03203 Alicante
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Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy, XaRTA, INSA, School of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110537
Received: 11 October 2019 / Accepted: 30 October 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases)
Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moving towards healthier diets, namely, diets rich in bioactive compounds, could decrease the odds of suffering T2D. However, those individuals with high body mass index (BMI) may have altered absorption or metabolism of some nutrients and dietary components, including polyphenols. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether high intakes of some classes of polyphenols are associated with T2D in a population with metabolic syndrome and how these associations depend on BMI and sex. This baseline cross-sectional analysis includes 6633 participants from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Polyphenol intakes were calculated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Cox regression models with constant time at risk and robust variance estimators were used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for polyphenol intake and T2D prevalence using the lowest quartile as the reference group. Analyses were stratified by sex and BMI groups (overweight and obese) to evaluate potential effect modification. Catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxybenzoic acids, and lignans were inversely associated with T2D. Hydroxycinnamic acids were directly related in men. These associations were different depending on sex and BMI, that is, women and overweight obtained stronger inverse associations. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; obesity; flavonoids; catechins; proanthocyanidins; hydroxybenzoic acids; hydroxycinnamic acids; lignans; phenolic acids diet; obesity; flavonoids; catechins; proanthocyanidins; hydroxybenzoic acids; hydroxycinnamic acids; lignans; phenolic acids
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Tresserra-Rimbau, A.; Castro-Barquero, S.; Vitelli-Storelli, F.; Becerra-Tomas, N.; Vázquez-Ruiz, Z.; Díaz-López, A.; Corella, D.; Castañer, O.; Romaguera, D.; Vioque, J.; Alonso-Gómez, Á.M.; Wärnberg, J.; Martínez, J.A.; Serra-Majem, L.; Estruch, R.; Tinahones, F.J.; Lapetra, J.; Pintó, X.; Tur, J.A.; López-Miranda, J.; García-Molina, L.; Delgado-Rodríguez, M.; Matía-Martín, P.; Daimiel, L.; Rubín-García, M.; Vidal, J.; Galdon, A.; Ros, E.; Basterra-Gortari, F.J.; Babio, N.; Sorlí, J.V.; Hernáez, Á.; Konieczna, J.; Notario-Barandiaran, L.; Tojal-Sierra, L.; Pérez-López, J.; Abete, I.; Álvarez-Pérez, J.; Fernández-García, J.C.; Santos-Lozano, J.M.; Galera-Cusí, A.; Julibert, A.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Martinez-Lacruz, R.; Pérez-Vega, K.-A.; Galmes-Panades, A.M.; Pastor-Polo, C.; Moreno-Rodriguez, A.; Gea, A.; Fitó, M.; Lamuela-Raventós, R.M.; Salas-Salvadó, J. Associations between Dietary Polyphenols and Type 2 Diabetes in a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus Trial: Role of Body Mass Index and Sex. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 537.

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