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Open AccessArticle

Impact of ApoE Polymorphism and Physical Activity on Plasma Antioxidant Capability and Erythrocyte Membranes

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110538 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 September 2019 / Revised: 6 November 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Signalling and Exercise)
The allele epsilon 4 (ε4) of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). ApoE protein plays a pivotal role in the synthesis and metabolism of amyloid beta (Aβ), the major component of the extracellular plaques that constitute AD pathological hallmarks. Regular exercise is an important preventive/therapeutic tool in aging and AD. Nevertheless, the impact of physical exercise on the well-being of erythrocytes, a good model of oxidative stress and neurodegenerative processes, remains to be investigated, particularly depending on ApoE polymorphism. Herein, we evaluate the oxidative status, Aβ levels, and the membrane’s composition of erythrocytes in a cohort of human subjects. In our hands, the plasma antioxidant capability (AOC), erythrocytes membrane fluidity, and the amount of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were demonstrated to be significantly decreased in the ApoE ε4 genotype and non-active subjects. In contrast, erythrocyte Aβ content and lipid peroxidation increased in ε4 carriers. Regular physical exercise was associated with an increased plasma AOC and membrane fluidity, as well as to a reduced amount of erythrocytes Aβ. Altogether, these data highlight the influence of the ApoE genotype on erythrocytes’ well-being and confirm the positive impact of regular physical exercise. View Full-Text
Keywords: ApoE ε4; physical activity; erythrocytes; oxidative stress; cellular membrane; amyloid beta ApoE ε4; physical activity; erythrocytes; oxidative stress; cellular membrane; amyloid beta
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Piccarducci, R.; Daniele, S.; Fusi, J.; Chico, L.; Baldacci, F.; Siciliano, G.; Bonuccelli, U.; Franzoni, F.; Martini, C. Impact of ApoE Polymorphism and Physical Activity on Plasma Antioxidant Capability and Erythrocyte Membranes. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 538.

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