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Open AccessReview

Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: A Brief Review of Their Synthesis Methods and Biomedical Applications

by 1 and 2,*
1
Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, NY 12203, USA
2
Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2018, 7(8), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7080097
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2018)
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) exhibit antioxidant properties both in vitro and in vivo. This is due to the self-regeneration of their surface, which is based on redox-cycling between 3+ and 4+ states for cerium, in response to their immediate environment. Additionally, oxygen vacancies in the lattice structure allow for alternating between CeO2 and CeO2−x during redox reactions. Research to identify and characterize the biomedical applications of CeNPs has been heavily focused on investigating their use in treating diseases that are characterized by higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although the bio-mimetic activities of CeNPs have been extensively studied in vitro, in vivo interactions and associated protein corona formation are not well understood. This review describes: (1) the methods of synthesis for CeNPs, including the recent green synthesis methods that offer enhanced biocompatibility and a need for establishing a reference CeNP material for consistency across studies; (2) their enzyme-mimetic activities, with a focus on their antioxidant activities; and, (3) recent experimental evidence that demonstrates their ROS scavenging abilities and their potential use in personalized medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: cerium oxide nanoparticles; nanoceria; lanthanide; redox-cycling; antioxidants; oxidative stress; green synthesis; biocompatibility; enzyme mimetics; personalized medicine cerium oxide nanoparticles; nanoceria; lanthanide; redox-cycling; antioxidants; oxidative stress; green synthesis; biocompatibility; enzyme mimetics; personalized medicine
MDPI and ACS Style

Dhall, A.; Self, W. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: A Brief Review of Their Synthesis Methods and Biomedical Applications. Antioxidants 2018, 7, 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7080097

AMA Style

Dhall A, Self W. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: A Brief Review of Their Synthesis Methods and Biomedical Applications. Antioxidants. 2018; 7(8):97. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7080097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dhall, Atul; Self, William. 2018. "Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: A Brief Review of Their Synthesis Methods and Biomedical Applications" Antioxidants 7, no. 8: 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7080097

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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