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Review

Antioxidative Molecules in Human Milk and Environmental Contaminants

1
Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Perinatal Neurobiology, Department of Human Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
4
Institute NaturScience, 28199 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rosita Gabbianelli and Laura Bordoni
Antioxidants 2021, 10(4), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040550
Received: 25 February 2021 / Revised: 23 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics and Antioxidant Components of Diet)
Breastfeeding provides overall beneficial health to the mother-child dyad and is universally recognized as the preferred feeding mode for infants up to 6-months and beyond. Human milk provides immuno-protection and supplies nutrients and bioactive compounds whose concentrations vary with lactation stage. Environmental and dietary factors potentially lead to excessive chemical exposure in critical windows of development such as neonatal life, including lactation. This review discusses current knowledge on these environmental and dietary contaminants and summarizes the known effects of these chemicals in human milk, taking into account the protective presence of antioxidative molecules. Particular attention is given to short- and long-term effects of these contaminants, considering their role as endocrine disruptors and potential epigenetic modulators. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps and indicate potential future research directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: breastfeeding; milk composition; MFGM; trace elements; lactoferrin; melatonin; xenobiotics; man-made chemicals; endocrine disruptors; epigenetic modulators breastfeeding; milk composition; MFGM; trace elements; lactoferrin; melatonin; xenobiotics; man-made chemicals; endocrine disruptors; epigenetic modulators
MDPI and ACS Style

Lorenzetti, S.; Plösch, T.; Teller, I.C. Antioxidative Molecules in Human Milk and Environmental Contaminants. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 550. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040550

AMA Style

Lorenzetti S, Plösch T, Teller IC. Antioxidative Molecules in Human Milk and Environmental Contaminants. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(4):550. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040550

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lorenzetti, Stefano, Torsten Plösch, and Inga C. Teller 2021. "Antioxidative Molecules in Human Milk and Environmental Contaminants" Antioxidants 10, no. 4: 550. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10040550

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