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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020281

Understanding Camellia sinensis using Omics Technologies along with Endophytic Bacteria and Environmental Roles on Metabolism: A Review

1
Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida 1710, South Africa
2
Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam 44340847, Iran
3
Department of Medical Parasitology, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61663335, Iran
4
Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
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Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto–Portugal, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
6
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, VIII-Bio Bio Region, Concepcion 4070386, Chile
7
Food Safety Research Center (Salt), School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan 35198-99951, Iran
8
Department of Chemistry, Richardson College for the Environmental Science Complex, The University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB R3B 2G3, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Abstract

Camellia sinensis is the most consumed beverage worldwide. It contains a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, catechins, and polyphenols, generated through a condensation reaction of cinnamic acid with three malonyl-CoA groups. In addition to the metabolic processes occurring within this plant, there are also some plant-associated bacterial endophytes. These bacteria reside in the living tissues of the host plants without causing any harmful effect to them, thereby stimulating secondary metabolite production with a diverse range of biological effects. Omics technologies reveal understanding of the biological phenomena of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. In this sense, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive review of various methods used to identify distinct plant compounds, namely transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analysis. The role of endophytic bacteria in C. sinensis metabolism, and C. sinensis antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, are also carefully highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: Camellia sinensis; endophytic bacteria; metabolomics; proteomics; transcriptomics; antioxidant; antimicrobial; phenolic compounds Camellia sinensis; endophytic bacteria; metabolomics; proteomics; transcriptomics; antioxidant; antimicrobial; phenolic compounds
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Tshikhudo, P.P.; Ntushelo, K.; Mudau, F.N.; Salehi, B.; Sharifi-Rad, M.; Martins, N.; Martorell, M.; Sharifi-Rad, J. Understanding Camellia sinensis using Omics Technologies along with Endophytic Bacteria and Environmental Roles on Metabolism: A Review. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 281.

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