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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Soccer Ball Panels on Aerodynamic Characteristics and Flow in Drag Crisis

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677, Japan
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi- Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010296
Received: 12 November 2020 / Revised: 9 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 30 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Fluid Mechanics)
The panel patterns of soccer balls that change with each World Cup have a significant impact on the balls’ aerodynamic and flight characteristics. In this study, the aerodynamic forces of eleven types of soccer ball with different panel patterns were measured in a wind tunnel experiment. We characterized the panel shapes of soccer balls by the length, cross-sectional area, and the panel grooves’ volume. The results confirmed that the drag and drag crisis characteristics are dependent on the groove length and volumes. Flow separation points were visualized by an oil film experiment and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement to understand the drag crisis of the soccer balls. The results showed that the panel shape of the ball significantly changes the position of the separation point near the critical region, where the drags crisis occurs. In the critical region, laminar and turbulent flows coexist on the ball. On the other hand, the effect of panel shape on the separation point position is small in subcritical and supercritical states. View Full-Text
Keywords: drag crisis; soccer ball; flow separation; oil film; particle image velocimetry (PIV) drag crisis; soccer ball; flow separation; oil film; particle image velocimetry (PIV)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakamoto, Y.; Hiratsuka, M.; Ito, S. Effect of Soccer Ball Panels on Aerodynamic Characteristics and Flow in Drag Crisis. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 296. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010296

AMA Style

Sakamoto Y, Hiratsuka M, Ito S. Effect of Soccer Ball Panels on Aerodynamic Characteristics and Flow in Drag Crisis. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(1):296. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010296

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakamoto, Yuki; Hiratsuka, Masaki; Ito, Shinichiro. 2021. "Effect of Soccer Ball Panels on Aerodynamic Characteristics and Flow in Drag Crisis" Appl. Sci. 11, no. 1: 296. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010296

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