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Chemometrics-Assisted Monitoring in Raman Spectroscopy for the Biodegradation Process of an Aqueous Polyfluoroalkyl Ether from a Fire-Fighting foam in an Environmental Matrix

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LMOPS/CentraleSupelec EA 4423, Université de Lorraine, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 57070 Metz, France
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MAST-FM2D, Univ. Gustave Eiffel, IFSTTAR, F-77447 Marne-la-Vallée, France
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Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LIEC, F-54000 Nancy, France
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Cerema Ile de France, 12 Rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes en Yvelines, France
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Direction Générale de l’Aviation Civile—Service Technique de l’Aviation Civile, Subdivision Eau Sols Dégivrants Déverglaçants, 9 Avenue du Docteur Maurice Grynfogel, 31037 Toulouse, CEDEX 1, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Environments 2020, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7010004
Received: 6 November 2019 / Revised: 10 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 8 January 2020
Surfactants based on polyfluoroalkyl ethers are commonly used in fire-fighting foams on airport platforms, including for training sessions. Because of their persistence into the environment, their toxicity and their bioaccumulation, abnormal amounts can be found in ground and surface water following the operations of airport platforms. As with many other anthropogenic, organic compounds, some concerns are raised about their biodegradation. That is why the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 301 F protocol was implemented to monitor the oxygen consumption during the biodegradation of a commercial fire-fighting foam. However, a Raman spectroscopic monitoring of the process was also attached to this experimental procedure to evaluate to what extent a polyfluoroalkyl ether disappeared from the environmental matrix. Our approach relies on the use of chemometrics, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS), in order to monitor the kinetics of the biodegradation reaction of one fire-fighting foam, Tridol S3B, containing a polyfluoroalkyl ether. This study provided a better appreciation of the partial biodegradation of some polyfluoroalkyl ethers by coupling Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics. This will ultimately facilitate the design of future purification and remediation devices for airport platforms. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental fate; Raman spectroscopy; chemometrics; principal component analysis; biodegradation; kinetics; post-processing; Whittaker filter; partial least squares environmental fate; Raman spectroscopy; chemometrics; principal component analysis; biodegradation; kinetics; post-processing; Whittaker filter; partial least squares
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Marchetti, M.; Offroy, M.; Abdat, F.; Branchu, P.; Bourson, P.; Jobard, C.; Durmont, J.-F.; Casteran, G. Chemometrics-Assisted Monitoring in Raman Spectroscopy for the Biodegradation Process of an Aqueous Polyfluoroalkyl Ether from a Fire-Fighting foam in an Environmental Matrix. Environments 2020, 7, 4.

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