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Environments, Volume 6, Issue 1 (January 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Vinasse is a residue from the sugarcane ethanol process that is rich in organic matter and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Distributive Differences in Residents’ Perceptions of Tourism Impacts in Support for Sustainable Tourism Development—Lu-Kang Destination Case
Received: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Few empirical studies on the effect of tourism impacts on residents’ support for tourism development have linked an environmental justice perspective with sustainable tourism. This study aims to explore spatial distributive differences in residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts to understand their support for [...] Read more.
Few empirical studies on the effect of tourism impacts on residents’ support for tourism development have linked an environmental justice perspective with sustainable tourism. This study aims to explore spatial distributive differences in residents’ perceptions of tourism impacts to understand their support for sustainable tourism development. A total of 1057 residents of the Lu-Kang destination in Taiwan were surveyed using an on-site questionnaire. Employing the kernel density method and the local K function for spatial point analysis, the results indicated that spatial clustering of residents’ perceptions of both positive and negative tourism impacts occurred in the specific locations. Further, high household income, high education, and more personal benefits from tourism promoted the formation of localized spatial clusters where residents had positive perceptions of tourism impacts which, in turn, led to a high level of support for tourism development. Conversely, low income, low education, and less personal benefits from tourism cultivated the development of spatial clusters with negative perceptions of tourism impacts which, in turn, caused a low level of support for tourism development. The implications for sustainable tourism planning and strategies are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Water Quality of a Tropical Reservoir
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
A study of the water quality of the Adolfo López Mateos Reservoir (ALMD) was developed through different indicators from a spatial and seasonal perspective. Variables related to the general characteristics of water quality, trophic level, and ecological risk were assessed through the National [...] Read more.
A study of the water quality of the Adolfo López Mateos Reservoir (ALMD) was developed through different indicators from a spatial and seasonal perspective. Variables related to the general characteristics of water quality, trophic level, and ecological risk were assessed through the National Sanitation Foundation–Brown Water Quality Index (WQINSF–BROWN), the Carlson Trophic State Index (TSICARLSON) and the Håkanson Ecological Risk Index (RIHÅKANSON). Using data from physical, chemical, and biological parameters obtained from four sampling points in the ALMD, the water quality was assessed in each model used. The results indicated that the reservoir presents a water quality classified as “medium” (WQINSF–BROWN = 70), where significant variations in the concentrations of some parameters are observed. The reservoir showed a general trophic state (TSIGENERAL-AVERAGE = 43.04) classified as “mesotrophic”. The ecological risk analysis achieved the best classification of the methodology, discarding contamination by heavy metals in surface waters. This type of applied methodology will help in decision-making tools in the dam, and can be applied in other dams in the region. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Environments in 2018
Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Vinasse Treatment within the Sugarcane-Ethanol Industry Using Ozone Combined with Anaerobic and Aerobic Microbial Processes
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
The production of ethanol from sugarcane or molasses generates vinasse, a residue rich in organic matter and minerals. Vinasse is often used in fertilization and irrigation practices, which may be linked to negative environmental outcomes if excess is applied. Herein, we introduce a [...] Read more.
The production of ethanol from sugarcane or molasses generates vinasse, a residue rich in organic matter and minerals. Vinasse is often used in fertilization and irrigation practices, which may be linked to negative environmental outcomes if excess is applied. Herein, we introduce a novel alternative to the treatment of vinasse promoting the reduction in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) levels, phenolic compounds, and its mineral content through the coupling of ozone treatment, anaerobic digestion, and the aerobic growth of fungi. The ozone treatment is able to remove about 30% of the total COD, and deplete the concentration of phenolic compounds, while anaerobic digestion produces biogas and generates vinasse digestate, which is less biorecalcitrant than raw vinasse. The aerobic fungal growth generates oleaginous fungal biomass and promotes over 80% of Kjeldahl-Nitrogen in the vinasse. If vinasse were treated following the sequence of anaerobic digestion, aerobic fungal growth, and ozone treatment, the effluent would have about 95% of the COD decreased, complete removal of phenolic compounds, and over 80% of Kjeldahl-Nitrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Health Effects and Soundscape Analysis as New Mitigation Actions Concerning the Aircraft Noise Impact in Small- and Middle-Size Urban Areas in Greece
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
In 2013 and 2014, two main International Airports in Greece were evaluated through the European directive on noise environment 2002/49/EC: “Nikos Kazantzakis” International Airport of Heraklion Crete and “Ioannis—Kapodistrias” International Airport in Corfu, both located in highly touristic areas of Greece. Acoustic measurement’s [...] Read more.
In 2013 and 2014, two main International Airports in Greece were evaluated through the European directive on noise environment 2002/49/EC: “Nikos Kazantzakis” International Airport of Heraklion Crete and “Ioannis—Kapodistrias” International Airport in Corfu, both located in highly touristic areas of Greece. Acoustic measurement’s campaign, environmental noise mapping simulations and population exposure to noise were implemented in order to produce a complete Strategic Noise Map. Correlated to this acoustic approach, a comprehensive interview campaign and a detailed soundscape analysis were also conducted in both airports’ adjacent areas (Alikarnassos district in Heraklion and the peninsula of Canoni in Corfu City) in order to understand the impact of aircraft movements on both local residents and tourists, and analyze the perception of the soundscapes. A similar evaluation was also executed in order to assess possible health effects by using the WHO’s DALY’s (Disability Adjusted Life Year) metrics for environmental noise in relation to the exposure of the population. This paper presents the main results of these representative case studies, attempting a combined assessment of both health effects and soundscape characteristics to be used as evaluation tools towards the management and the rehabilitation acoustic environment characterized mainly by aircraft noise in touristic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Solutions Mitigating Environmental Noise Pollution)
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Open AccessArticle
Inclusive Ecosystems? Women’s Participation in the Aquatic Ecosystem of Lake Malawi
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
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Abstract
Ecosystem services and their role in alleviating poverty are centered on a set of gendered social relations. The understanding of these relations between men and women in aquatic ecosystems can unveil gender-based opportunities and constraints along the value chains of the ecosystem services. [...] Read more.
Ecosystem services and their role in alleviating poverty are centered on a set of gendered social relations. The understanding of these relations between men and women in aquatic ecosystems can unveil gender-based opportunities and constraints along the value chains of the ecosystem services. A gender discourse perspective on participation of actors of an ecosystem can further facilitate the understanding of the complex and subtle ways in which gender is represented, constructed, and contested. This paper analyses the barriers to the participation of women in the fishing industry. The analysis is based on a study conducted in five fishing villages of Lake Malawi through a structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and observations. First, it looks at gender and participation from a theoretical perspective to explain how gender manifests itself in participation and interrogates why women have limited benefits from the fishing industry. Second, it highlights the barriers that seem to preclude women from participating, which include institutional embedded norms, financial, socio-cultural, and reproduction roles. In general, women had little influence on the type of fishing sites, markets, and access to financing of their businesses. A gender transformative agenda is therefore required to proactively facilitate changes of some entrenched institutional norms as well as having greater access to financial services and new technologies in order to enhance women’s full participation and equal benefits from ecosystem services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Ecosystem Services)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Differences in Land Management on Natural Vegetation in Semi-Dry Areas: The Case Study of the Adi Zaboy Watershed in the Kilite Awlaelo District, Eastern Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
The search for a sustainable land management has become a universal issue. It is especially necessary to discuss sustainable land management and to secure a site with enough feed supply to improve the lives of the farmers in the Ethiopian Highlands. This research [...] Read more.
The search for a sustainable land management has become a universal issue. It is especially necessary to discuss sustainable land management and to secure a site with enough feed supply to improve the lives of the farmers in the Ethiopian Highlands. This research studied the Adi Zaboy watershed in Tigray in order to reveal the changes in land management, assess how the different forms of land management affected the vegetation through unsupervised classification and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) analysis with geographic information system (GIS) 10.5 using a WorldView-2 satellite image taken in September 2016 and field investigation, and consider how to allow both environmental preservation and sustainable use of feed resources. The land management types at the research site were classified as “seasonally-closed grazing land”, “prohibited grazing and protected forest land”, and “free grazing land”. On comparing the NDVI of each type of land management, it was found that the seasonally-closed grazing land makes it highly possible to secure and supply feed resources by limiting the grazing period. The expansion of the prohibited grazing and protected forest land is likely to tighten the restriction on the use of resources. Therefore, sustainable land management to secure feed resources may be possible by securing and actively using seasonally-closed grazing land, securing feed by a cut-and-carry, and using satellite images and GIS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Community Fish Refuge Management Practice in the Siem Reap Province of Cambodia
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
The Community Fish Refuge (CFR) is a fish conservation measure that is intended to improve the productivity of rice field fisheries and provide safe refuges for fish during the dry season. Cambodia’s Fisheries Administration aims to develop one well-working CFR in every 1200 [...] Read more.
The Community Fish Refuge (CFR) is a fish conservation measure that is intended to improve the productivity of rice field fisheries and provide safe refuges for fish during the dry season. Cambodia’s Fisheries Administration aims to develop one well-working CFR in every 1200 communes by 2019. This study assesses the current situation of the rice field fisheries in the Srey Snam district, Siem Reap province, examines community members’ awareness of fish refuge management; and examines the socioeconomic impacts of the CFR among its beneficiaries. Data collected by interviewing 120 households reveal that 85 percent of respondents pursued rice field fishery as part-time work, catching on average 5.2 kg of fish daily during the ten-month harvest period. Most fish products were used for home consumption. Total household saving and income from fish production significantly increased after community members joined CFRs. Respondents’ expenditures, savings and assets also increased after CFR intervention, indicating improvements in livelihood. Illegal fishing and budgetary constraint to implementing CFR interventions are the pressing problems facing the users. The paper ends by outlining measures that could help strengthen and sustain CFRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Ecosystem Services)
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Environments EISSN 2076-3298 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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