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de novo Blood Biomarkers in Autism: Autoantibodies against Neuronal and Glial Proteins
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Speech-Stimulating Substances in Autism Spectrum Disorders

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Research Division, Autism Immunology Unit of Maracaibo, Maracaibo 4001, Venezuela
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zulia, Maracaibo 4001, Venezuela
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Catedra libre de Autismo, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo 4001, Venezuela
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Italian Group for Studying Autism—GISA, 25018 Brescia, Italy
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Biomedical Centre for Autism Research and Treatment, 70126 Bari, Italy
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Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
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Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Campania, 80138 Napoli, Italy
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Centre for Autism-La Forza del Silenzio, 81036 Caserta, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Behav. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9060060
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by the core domains of persistent deficits in social communication and restricted-repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities. A heterogeneous and complex set of neurodevelopmental conditions are grouped in the spectrum. Pro-inflammatory events and immune system dysfunctions are cellular and molecular events associated with ASD. Several conditions co-occur with ASD: seizures, gastro-intestinal problems, attention deficit, anxiety and depression, and sleep problems. However, language and speech issues are key components of ASD symptoms current therapies find difficult to face. Several speech-stimulating substances have been shown to be effective in increasing speech ability in ASD subjects. The need for large clinical trials to determine safety and efficacy is recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; speech; language; nutrition autism spectrum disorder; speech; language; nutrition
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Castillo, M.A.; Urdaneta, K.E.; Semprún-Hernández, N.; Brigida, A.L.; Antonucci, N.; Schultz, S.; Siniscalco, D. Speech-Stimulating Substances in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Behav. Sci. 2019, 9, 60.

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