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Behav. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 39 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Sometimes we feel as though our mental states are “in sync” with other people, but why does it [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Behavioral Sciences in 2019
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010039 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 475
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Life and Family Values Similarity in Inter-Ethnic and Inter-Faith Couples
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010038 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Inter-cultural families are an integral part of modern society, the institution of mutual influence of different cultures, of a person’s identity transformation. The studies of marital adjustment, values, and attitudes consistency in inter-cultural couples provide contradictory results. To resolve contradictions in this area, [...] Read more.
Inter-cultural families are an integral part of modern society, the institution of mutual influence of different cultures, of a person’s identity transformation. The studies of marital adjustment, values, and attitudes consistency in inter-cultural couples provide contradictory results. To resolve contradictions in this area, comparative studies of inter-cultural families of different types are important. The aim of the study is the comparative analysis of life and family values in inter-cultural couples, differing by the ethnic and religious affiliation of spouses. The participants: 69 couples: 20 mono-ethnic Russian, 30—inter-ethnic, inter-faith (Russians/Arabs); 19—inter-ethnic, with a common religion (Russian/Transcaucasian, Christians). The methods: Value Survey (Schwartz), Marital Role Expectations and Aspirations (Volkova), Marital Satisfaction Test (Stolin et al.), Mann–Whitney U-test, paired T-test. In inter-cultural couples, the spouses’ life-values coincidence is significantly less strong than in mono-cultural ones. However, in couples with common religious differences, their life values reflect not so much the contradictions, but the complementarity of traditional gender values. In general, the different cultures of spouses (both ethnic and religious) optimizes the process of comparing values and family attitudes. Despite a number of difficulties, spouses from inter-cultural couples generally have more consistent ideas about their family life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Reliability and Validity of a Method for Assessment of Executive Functions in Drivers
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010037 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 479
Abstract
The quality of drivers’ performance is one of the crucial components related to road safety. One of the key cognitive characteristics related to the ability to drive safely are executive functions. The main goal of the presented research is to propose a new [...] Read more.
The quality of drivers’ performance is one of the crucial components related to road safety. One of the key cognitive characteristics related to the ability to drive safely are executive functions. The main goal of the presented research is to propose a new method (Trace-route task) for assessment of executive functions in drivers. The present article discusses the results of two consecutive studies. Study one aims to determine the validity and reliability of the method used and includes 134 participants, equally divided in two groups—people with disturbances in executive functions and people from the general population. Study two aims to assess the ability of the method to distinguish drivers with risky behavior. It includes 1440 participants divided in two groups—people with and without actual risky driving behavior. The results from the studies show that people with different neurological or psychiatric diseases and drivers with different road violations demonstrate worse planning ability, working memory, decision making, and cognitive flexibility. This data show that the trace-route task method is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing executive functions and has the ability to distinguish people with risky driving behavior from those who drive safely. This study reveals that the proposed method can be used for implementation in the area of traffic psychology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Fine Motor Precision Tasks: Sex Differences in Performance with and without Visual Guidance across Different Age Groups
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010036 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Previous studies have reported certain sex differences in motor performance precision. The aim of the present study was to analyze sex differences in fine motor precision performance for both hands under different test conditions. Fine motor tasks were performed by 220 Spanish participants [...] Read more.
Previous studies have reported certain sex differences in motor performance precision. The aim of the present study was to analyze sex differences in fine motor precision performance for both hands under different test conditions. Fine motor tasks were performed by 220 Spanish participants (ages: 12–95), tracing over the provided models – lines of 40 mm for both hands, two sensory conditions (PV—proprioceptive-visual; P—proprioceptive only) and three movement types (F—frontal, T—transversal, and S—sagittal). Differences in line length (the task focused on precision) were observed through MANOVA analysis for all test conditions, both sexes and different age groups. Sex differences in precision were observed in F and T movement types (statistically significance level and higher Cohens’ d were observed in condition with vision). No statistically significant differences were observed for both hands and sensory conditions in sagittal movement. Sex differences in fine motor precision were more frequently observed in the PV sensory condition in frontal movement and less in sagittal movement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Creativity and Personality Traits as Foreign Language Acquisition Predictors in University Linguistics Students
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010035 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Foreign (second) language (FL/SL) proficiency is one of the most important competencies for a modern person, and is necessary for both professional and personal fulfillment. The purpose of this study is to consider and compare personality traits and creativity as predictors of success [...] Read more.
Foreign (second) language (FL/SL) proficiency is one of the most important competencies for a modern person, and is necessary for both professional and personal fulfillment. The purpose of this study is to consider and compare personality traits and creativity as predictors of success in foreign language acquisition (FLA). The sample includes 128 (105 female and 23 male) first- and second-year university linguistics students. Creativity is measured by the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA). The FFM personality traits are measured by the Russian NEO Five-Factor Inventory adaptation by S. Biryukov and M. Bodunov. To assess the level of FL proficiency, we used a traditional academic achievement indicator (the semester’s final grades in English), as well as the English teachers’ assessment of the level of language proficiency of their students according to the “Foreign Language Proficiency Scale” (10 indicators and total score). Descriptive statistics methods and a multiple regression analysis were used to process the data in the R software environment, version 3.5.2. The findings of our research showed that creativity indicators have a stronger but contradictory impact on the level of FL proficiency compared to personality traits. We suggest that teachers, most likely, lack knowledge on the manifestations of student creativity in the process of FL learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
The Contribution of Individual Psychological Features to the Determination of the Phenomenon of Work Alienation
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010034 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Using the questionnaire method on a sample of 92 Russian-speaking employees of the “person-person” professions type, the relationship of work alienation with personal characteristics was investigated. It was found that work alienation has associations with some personality traits. Also, the satisfaction of basic [...] Read more.
Using the questionnaire method on a sample of 92 Russian-speaking employees of the “person-person” professions type, the relationship of work alienation with personal characteristics was investigated. It was found that work alienation has associations with some personality traits. Also, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs at work is a significant predictor of work alienation. The study proved that work alienation is a relatively flexible construct for changes in the workplace that relate to autonomy, competence, and social relations. The results of the research can be used as an empirical justification of the model of the phenomenon as well as in the development of a differentiated approach to the prevention and intervention of work alienation, depending on the personality characteristics of employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Associations of Patient Mood, Modulators of Quality of Life, and Pharmaceuticals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Survival Duration
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010033 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 805
Abstract
Associations of modulators of quality of life (QoL) and survival duration are assessed in the fatal motor neuron disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Major categories include clinical impression of mood (CIM); physical health; patient social support; and usage of interventions, pharmaceuticals, and supplements. Associations [...] Read more.
Associations of modulators of quality of life (QoL) and survival duration are assessed in the fatal motor neuron disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Major categories include clinical impression of mood (CIM); physical health; patient social support; and usage of interventions, pharmaceuticals, and supplements. Associations were assessed at p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 significance thresholds using applicable methods (Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA, logistical regression, random forests, Fisher’s exact test) within a retrospective cohort of 1585 patients. Factors significantly correlated with positive (happy or normal) mood included family support and usage of bi-level positive airway pressure (Bi-PAP) and/or cough assist. Decline in physical factors like presence of dysphagia, drooling, general pain, and decrease in ALSFRS-R total score or forced vital capacity (FVC) significantly correlated with negative (depressed or anxious) mood (p < 0.05). Use of antidepressants or pain medications had no association with ALS patient mood (p > 0.05), but were significantly associated with increased survival (p < 0.05). Positive patient mood, Bi-PAP, cough assist, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), and accompaniment to clinic visits associated with increased survival duration (p < 0.001). Of the 47 most prevalent pharmaceutical and supplement categories, 17 associated with significant survival duration increases ranging +4.5 to +16.5 months. Tricyclic antidepressants, non-opioids, muscle relaxants, and vitamin E had the highest associative increases in survival duration (p < 0.05). Random forests, which examined complex interactions, identified the following pharmaceuticals and supplements as most predictive to survival duration: Vitamin A, multivitamin, PEG supplements, alternative herbs, antihistamines, muscle relaxants, stimulant laxatives, and antispastics. Statins, metformin, and thiazide diuretics had insignificant associations with decreased survival. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coping Strategies and Personality Profile Characteristics of People Whose Parents Were Alcohol Addicts
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010032 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 639
Abstract
The relevance of this research is due to the wide prevalence of addictive behavior and the insufficient knowledge of the coping strategies of patients and their families. The purpose of this research was to investigate the resource factors and coping strategies of adults [...] Read more.
The relevance of this research is due to the wide prevalence of addictive behavior and the insufficient knowledge of the coping strategies of patients and their families. The purpose of this research was to investigate the resource factors and coping strategies of adults with alcohol-addicted parents and to make recommendations for psychological counseling for these people. The sample consisted of 52 subjects—who were participants in a twelve-step rehabilitation program for adult people whose parents had alcohol addictions—and 50 controls. We used guilt questionnaires (“The Guilt Inventory Questionnaire”, “The Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaire”), quantitative methods for evaluating the coping strategies used by participants (“coping strategies” (Lazarus, Folkman)), and a phenomenological analysis of the interviews with the participants. The results showed that adults with alcohol-addicted parents felt guilty in situations when they took care of somebody because their own parents did not model (and teach them) caretaking behavior. People whose parents were alcohol addicts tend to avoid accepting responsibility for their lives. The resource factors of people with alcohol-addicted parents included keeping a diary, participation in a rehabilitation program, and confidential communication with other people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Eating Habits’ Quality on Scholastic Performance in Turkish Adolescents
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010031 - 10 Jan 2020
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Evidence associates scholastic performance to quality of eating habits. However, there is limited information on this topic in Turkey, an emerging economy with notable disparities. Our work aimed to evaluate the effect of eating habits quality of high-school students in Turkey, on the [...] Read more.
Evidence associates scholastic performance to quality of eating habits. However, there is limited information on this topic in Turkey, an emerging economy with notable disparities. Our work aimed to evaluate the effect of eating habits quality of high-school students in Turkey, on the Scholastic Aptitude Standardized Examination (TEOG) scores. The study was conducted in 29 different cities in Turkey during the academic year 2016–2017, involving students of ages 14–17 years (up to senior-high school). A dietary habits survey developed and validated for this population was distributed over the internet in February 2017. Apart from students’ TEOG scores, Family Affluence Score (FAS) was used to categorize the students into low, medium, and high financial standing. Eating Habits Score (EHS) was calculated by using a validated scoring system. A working sample of 298 participants was used. Based on our results, we observed that there is a significant positive correlation between EHS, FAS and success rate of students as assessed by TEOG scores. Further research on this subject should be conducted in combination with intervention studies to reveal potential strategies and policies that would enhance positive behavior change as it relates to nutritional habits, aiming at improved scholastic performance and overall health throughout lifespan. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Migration and Adaptation as Indicators of Social Mobility Migrants
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010030 - 09 Jan 2020
Viewed by 641
Abstract
The economic and social changes in modern society have resulted in intensive and extensive migrant activity. The article contains a review of social, psychological, and gender aspects of migration from three countries of Central Asia (former Soviet republic)—Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan—in Russia (St. [...] Read more.
The economic and social changes in modern society have resulted in intensive and extensive migrant activity. The article contains a review of social, psychological, and gender aspects of migration from three countries of Central Asia (former Soviet republic)—Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan—in Russia (St. Petersburg). The main objective of our study was to identify socio-psychological mechanisms of migration from Central Asia—the general and specific peculiarities of the acculturation process of migrant workers. Participants in the study were labor migrants from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. The research was conducted in St. Petersburg. In total, 98 people aged from 19 to 42 years old took part in the research (median age = 32.26, SD = 3.44), among them, women made up 44% and men made up 56%. Three ethnic groups were represented in the sample: Kyrgyz people (34 persons), Tajik people (32 persons), and Uzbek people (32 persons). The research found both general and specific features related to certain ethnic groups. The research results showed that there were significant differences between the migrants from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan by the following acculturation indicators: number of social contacts (friends) among representatives of their own ethnicity and among the Russian-speaking population, type of acculturation strategy, degree of life satisfaction, cultural and economic safety, and anxiety level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Involvement in Physical Fights among School Attending Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Sample from Kuwait
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010029 - 08 Jan 2020
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Background: Interpersonal violence in school settings is an important public health problem worldwide. This study investigated the individual and social correlates for being involved in a physical fight amongst a nationally representative sample of school-attending adolescents in Kuwait. Methods: We carried out bivariate [...] Read more.
Background: Interpersonal violence in school settings is an important public health problem worldwide. This study investigated the individual and social correlates for being involved in a physical fight amongst a nationally representative sample of school-attending adolescents in Kuwait. Methods: We carried out bivariate and multivariate analyses to determine the strength and direction of associations with adolescent involvement in problematic fighting behavior within a 12-month recall period. Results: Within a total sample of 3637, n = 877 (25.2%) of school-attending adolescents reported being involved in two or more physical fights during the recall period. The multivariate analysis indicated that being male (OR = 2.71; CI = 1.88–3.90), a victim of bullying (OR = 2.77; CI = 2.14–3.58), truancy (OR = 2.52; CI = 1.91–3.32), planning a suicide (OR = 2.04; CI = 1.49–2.78) and food deprivation (OR = 1.91; CI = 1.37–2.65) were associated with an increased risk of involvement in physical fighting. Peer support in the form of having close friends (OR = 0.85; CI = 0.76–0.96) was found to be associated with a reduced involvement in fighting behavior. Conclusion: The results, when taken together, suggest that supportive school environments may represent important settings for violence mitigation and prevention strategies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Measuring Biases of Visual Attention: A Comparison of Four Tasks
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010028 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Attention biases to stimuli with emotional content may play a role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. The most commonly used tasks in measuring and treating such biases, the dot-probe and spatial cueing tasks, have yielded mixed results, however. We assessed [...] Read more.
Attention biases to stimuli with emotional content may play a role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. The most commonly used tasks in measuring and treating such biases, the dot-probe and spatial cueing tasks, have yielded mixed results, however. We assessed the sensitivity of four visual attention tasks (dot-probe, spatial cueing, visual search with irrelevant distractor and attentional blink tasks) to differences in attentional processing between threatening and neutral faces in 33 outpatients with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 26 healthy controls. The dot-probe and cueing tasks revealed no differential processing of neutral and threatening faces between the SAD and control groups. The irrelevant distractor task showed some sensitivity to differential processing for the SAD group, but the attentional blink task was uniquely sensitive to such differences in both groups, and revealed processing differences between the SAD and control groups. The attentional blink task also revealed interesting temporal dynamics of attentional processing of emotional stimuli and may provide a uniquely nuanced picture of attentional response to emotional stimuli. Our results therefore suggest that the attentional blink task is more suitable for measuring preferential attending to emotional stimuli and treating dysfunctional attention patterns than the more commonly used dot-probe and cueing tasks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Formalized Computer-Aided Handwriting Psychology: Validation and Integration into Psychological Assessment
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010027 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 713
Abstract
In contrast to traditional researches that involve a manual, non-quantitative, and subjective way of performing handwriting analysis, in the current research, a special computer-aided method of revised handwriting analysis is used. It includes the detection of personality traits via manual quantitative registration of [...] Read more.
In contrast to traditional researches that involve a manual, non-quantitative, and subjective way of performing handwriting analysis, in the current research, a special computer-aided method of revised handwriting analysis is used. It includes the detection of personality traits via manual quantitative registration of handwriting signs and their automated quantitative evaluation. This method is based on a mathematical–statistical model that integrates multiple international publications on the evaluation of handwriting signs. The first aim is the validation of the revised method against the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire Revised (16PF-R), which is performed as a self-report personality test by test persons and was developed and researched empirically by Raymond B. Cattell et al. A second aim is the development of an integrated model for assessment including handwriting analysis: when both methods come to the same result on a certain scale, then the construct can be accepted with higher reliability; in contrast, when results are contradictory, they should be regarded as a limitation of each method and raise awareness in the researchers, as these contradictions are a precious source of additional information regarding the complexity, ambiguity, and context specificity of personality traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Postnatal Acetaminophen and Potential Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder among Males
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010026 - 01 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Some evidence from the literature suggests that postnatal acetaminophen exposure may be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a data set obtained from a previous study that was derived from an Internet-based survey among parents on 1515 children from [...] Read more.
Some evidence from the literature suggests that postnatal acetaminophen exposure may be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a data set obtained from a previous study that was derived from an Internet-based survey among parents on 1515 children from the US, an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and gender-specific aORs for doses of postnatal acetaminophen provided before age two were calculated against the outcome of ASD. Separately, parental uncertainty on the number of doses of acetaminophen provided was analyzed. A population attributable fraction (PAF) associated with postnatal acetaminophen exposure before age two for ASD among males was also estimated. Postnatal acetaminophen exposure, measured in doses before age two, was found to be associated with ASD among male children (aOR 1.023, CI 1.005–1.043, p = 0.020*), and parental uncertainty on the number of doses of acetaminophen provided before age two was also found to be associated with ASD. Using this data set, the PAF associated with postnatal acetaminophen was estimated to be about 40% of the risk of ASD among male children in the US. These results suggest the possibility that postnatal acetaminophen may be a significant contributor to the risk of ASD among males in the US. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Motivational Conflicts and the Psychological Structure of Perfectionism in Patients with Anxiety Disorders and Patients with Essential Hypertension
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010025 - 01 Jan 2020
Viewed by 724
Abstract
Many studies have shown connections between perfectionism, motivation, and anxiety disorders (AD), as well as essential hypertension (EH). The objective of this study is to examine the connections between motivation and the structure of perfectionism in AD patients and EH patients compared to [...] Read more.
Many studies have shown connections between perfectionism, motivation, and anxiety disorders (AD), as well as essential hypertension (EH). The objective of this study is to examine the connections between motivation and the structure of perfectionism in AD patients and EH patients compared to healthy individuals. Projective and semi-projective tests (thematic apperception test (TAT) of Heckhausen, Multi-Motive Grid) were used to measure motivation, while a perfectionism questionnaire by Hewitt and Flett was used to determine perfectionism levels. The participants were 21 AD patients, 21 EH patients, and 33 healthy individuals. EH patients show higher level of other-oriented perfectionism, and AD patients demonstrate increased levels of self-oriented perfectionism compared to the healthy group. Both groups of patients are motivated by fear of failure rather than hope for success, and they also demonstrate an increased fear of rejection. AD patients have an increased fear of power of other people. In EH patients, the fear of power seems to play a significant role as it correlates with many other variables. In EH patients, the other-oriented perfectionism is connected to achievement motivation, whereas in AD patients the same is true for socially prescribed perfectionism. Overall, studying motivation and perfectionism in relation to various disorders seems to offer research prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
The Other-Race and Other-Species Effect during a Sex Categorization Task: An Eye Tracker Study
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010024 - 01 Jan 2020
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Sex categorization from faces is a crucial ability for humans and non-human primates for various social and cognitive processes. In the current study, we performed two eye tracking experiments to examine the gaze behavior of participants during a sex categorization task in which [...] Read more.
Sex categorization from faces is a crucial ability for humans and non-human primates for various social and cognitive processes. In the current study, we performed two eye tracking experiments to examine the gaze behavior of participants during a sex categorization task in which participants categorize face pictures from their own-race (Caucasian), other-race (Asian) and other-species (chimpanzee). In experiment 1, we presented the faces in an upright position to 16 participants, and found a strong other-race and other-species effect. In experiment 2, the same faces were shown to 24 naïve participants in an upside-down (inverted) position, which showed that, although the other-species effect was intact, other-race effect disappeared. Moreover, eye-tracking analysis revealed that in the upright position, the eye region was the first and most widely viewed area for all face categories. However, during upside-down viewing, participants’ attention directed more towards the eye region of the own-race and own-species faces, whereas the nose received more attention in other-race and other-species faces. Overall results suggest that other-race faces were processed less holistically compared to own-race faces and this could affect both participants’ behavioral performance and gaze behavior during sex categorization. Finally, gaze data suggests that the gaze of participants shifts from the eye to the nose region with decreased racial and species-based familiarity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Russian Citizens’ Attitude toward Insurance Policies as a Factor of Individual Economic Security
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010023 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Today, insurance enables the functioning of the market system. In modern Russia, such a mechanism of protection against internal and external threats exists to ensure the economic security of each citizen. Indeed, individual insurance policies continue to gain importance as the most effective [...] Read more.
Today, insurance enables the functioning of the market system. In modern Russia, such a mechanism of protection against internal and external threats exists to ensure the economic security of each citizen. Indeed, individual insurance policies continue to gain importance as the most effective risk management tool to guarantee the safety of the health and property of private citizens. The goal of this study was to investigate Russian citizens’ attitudes towards insurance policies and investment bearing in mind the concept of personal economic security. Preparations for this study were focused on theoretical understandings of economic security problems, taking the field of insurance as an example. Our research consisted of four stages, with a total of 1794 participants. The results of this study can offer insight to improve the functioning of the insurance market in accordance with the framework of the Insurance Industry Development Strategy for the Russian Federation—2020. The obtained results can be used from both a political and economic standpoint in the development of a set of measures dealing with the control of financial institutions, promotion of financial literacy, preparation of courses for universities, and trainings for participants in the insurance market. Policyholders can also use this information to advocate for improved insurance programs for citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
The Study of Labor Interests of Young Workers in the Selection and Adaptation of Personnel
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010022 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 670
Abstract
The issue of actualization of labor interests as a motivational driver and one of the sources of labor productivity has received little study in applied and organizational psychology. The study given in the paper fills some “blanks” of this problem. The leading approach [...] Read more.
The issue of actualization of labor interests as a motivational driver and one of the sources of labor productivity has received little study in applied and organizational psychology. The study given in the paper fills some “blanks” of this problem. The leading approach to research is the mechanism of motivation, including the phenomenon of interest in work proposed on the basis of theoretical analysis. Using the methods of a special survey, questioning, and interview guides, the analysis and comparative assessment of the labor interests of 50 candidates for the service manager position (entertainment and restaurant industry field) was conducted, as well as of 45 employees in this industry aged 18 to 25. The main results of the paper show the connection of labor interests with the company’s personnel management system, namely, with the processes of selection, adaptation, and training. It was revealed that the candidates selected for the service manager position were of primary group interest and financial incentive was secondary. At the same time, financial incentive contributed to the successful passage of the adaptation period. Occupational interests of employees depended on their education and job specifics. Career interests were influenced by the time spent with the company. The recommendations necessary for employers to create the conditions corresponding to the leading labor interests of employees were substantiated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Existential Personality Fulfillment in the Course of Psychotherapy
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010021 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 764
Abstract
The purpose of the study is to explore the clients’ perceptions of therapeutic changes due to their existential fulfillment experience and authenticity in their relationships with the world. The content of the study reveals the subjective perceptions and experiences of clients about the [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study is to explore the clients’ perceptions of therapeutic changes due to their existential fulfillment experience and authenticity in their relationships with the world. The content of the study reveals the subjective perceptions and experiences of clients about the changes in the understanding of themselves and the world in the course of existential psychotherapy. Consideration of the qualitative changes in a person’s life as a result of psychotherapy was based on the concept of existential fulfillment and de-sedimentation of “I-structure”. An opening up of opportunities for experiencing the fullness of human existence, as well as exploring ways of avoiding existential fulfillment, present themselves as key aspects in existential psychotherapy. Research methods are Existence Scale (A. Längle and C. Orgler); semantic differential for measuring therapeutic changes of clients in the course of existential psychotherapy; and factor analysis. Going through a psychotherapeutic experience has a positive effect on the dynamics of self-distancing indices, self-transcendence, freedom, and responsibility. The experience of existential personal fulfillment in psychotherapy leads to changes in human contact with oneself and the ability to successfully interact with the external environment. Experiencing the true existential level of living helps a person to be aware of their needs and to stay in contact with their feelings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
The Effectiveness of Various Types of Psychological Correction of Anxiety in Primary School
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010020 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 718
Abstract
At various stages of the development and education of children, there are psychoemotional difficulties that create prerequisites for impairment of the development of the child’s personality. The timely detection of difficulties in schoolchildren and therapeutic efforts are important for the formation of a [...] Read more.
At various stages of the development and education of children, there are psychoemotional difficulties that create prerequisites for impairment of the development of the child’s personality. The timely detection of difficulties in schoolchildren and therapeutic efforts are important for the formation of a psychologically healthy personality. The study of the effectiveness of various remedial techniques for childhood anxiety has therefore become theoretically and practically significant. The purpose of our study is to determine the effectiveness of various types of such therapeutic efforts: social and psychological training, a method of biological feedback, and Sandplay for the indicators of childhood anxiety among younger schoolchildren. The study was conducted in the school of Magadan, northeast of Russia (9–10-year-old students, n = 43). We used a standardized method of Multidimensional Assessment of Child Anxiety which included 10 scales. The following therapeutic efforts were used: sociopsychological training (SPT), biofeedback method (BFB), individual and group Sandplay. Students of group I (n = 12) participated only in the SPT. Students of group II (n = 11) participated in the SPT and underwent a course of training in self-regulation using the BFB method. In therapy work with the students of group III (n = 20), the SPT, BFB, individual and group Sandplay were used. In group I, after the therapy sessions, a significant decrease in anxiety was observed in 3 of 10 scales (2, 6, 7; p < 0.05). In group II, it was seen in 5 scales (1, 3, 6, 7, 8; p < 0.05). In group III, significant improvements took place in 7 scales (1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10; p < 0.01–p < 0.05). The present study has shown the different efficacy of applying the remedial techniques separately and in combination. The use of the therapy methods, in the complex, enhances the impact on the types of child anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
High School Dropout Rates of Japanese Youth in Residential Care: An Examination of Major Risk Factors
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010019 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Youths in Japanese residential care institutions often face challenges with social adaptation and career trajectories. This study aimed to examine the risk factors that lead residential care youths in Japan to drop out of high school. Eighty-nine residential care facilities completed a questionnaire [...] Read more.
Youths in Japanese residential care institutions often face challenges with social adaptation and career trajectories. This study aimed to examine the risk factors that lead residential care youths in Japan to drop out of high school. Eighty-nine residential care facilities completed a questionnaire that focused on the characteristics of residing high school students, their educational status, experiences of maltreatment before residence, diagnosed disabilities, and the timing of admission. A sample composed of 773 youths was analyzed. Among the facilities, the high school dropout rate among youths in residential care was 19.3% (n = 149). Data revealed that the time of admission had the utmost significant effect. The risk of dropping out for youths admitted at junior high school age was significantly higher than for youths admitted before that age. Overall, residential care youths had a higher risk of not adapting to high school, and youths receiving short-term care demonstrated difficulty continuing high school. These results illustrate the importance of psychological treatment and educational support for youth who enter residential care during adolescence. Hence, attention should be focused on improving youth engagement in school to improve their social and career outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Imbalance between Emotionally Negative and Positive Life Events Retrieval and the Associated Asymmetry of Brain Activity
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010018 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 742
Abstract
Sustained focusing on a negative assessment of life events can create negative background and changes in the emotional feedback to new information. In this regard, it is important to assess the balance between self-assessment of emotional memories and their reflection in brain activity. [...] Read more.
Sustained focusing on a negative assessment of life events can create negative background and changes in the emotional feedback to new information. In this regard, it is important to assess the balance between self-assessment of emotional memories and their reflection in brain activity. The study was aimed at exploring the brain activity using electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis in six frequency ranges from delta to beta2 during the retrieval of positive or negative emotional memory compared with the resting state. According to ANOVA results, the most informative for differentiation of emotions were the alpha2 and beta2 rhythms with greater synchronization effect for positive than for negative emotions. The memory retrieval, regardless of the valence of emotions, was accompanied by alpha1 desynchronization at the posterior cortex. Self-assessment of the memory intensity was not significantly different due to emotion valences. However, the scores of positive emotions were related positively with beta2 oscillations at the left anterior temporal site, whereas for negative emotions, at the right one. Thus, the emotional autobiographical memory is reflected by activation processes in the visual cortex and areas associated with multimodal information processing, whereas differentiation of the valence of emotions is presented by the high-frequency oscillations at the temporal cortex areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
EEG “Signs” of Verbal Creative Task Fulfillment with and without Overcoming Self-Induced Stereotypes
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010017 - 29 Dec 2019
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The study aimed to reveal task-related differences in story creation with and without the mental effort of overcoming self-induced stereotypes. Eighteen right-handed subjects (19.3 ± 1.1 years old) created stories. The subjects reported the formation of story plot stereotypes (as we call them: [...] Read more.
The study aimed to reveal task-related differences in story creation with and without the mental effort of overcoming self-induced stereotypes. Eighteen right-handed subjects (19.3 ± 1.1 years old) created stories. The subjects reported the formation of story plot stereotypes (as we call them: self-induced) during self-regulated creative production, which had to be overcome with the instruction to continue the story. Creative task fulfillment (without formed stereotypes—first stage of creation) was characterized by a decrease in the wave percentages of 9–10 Hz, 10–11 Hz and 11–12 Hz frequencies and EEG desynchronization (decreases in EEG spectral power) in the theta (4–8 Hz), alpha1 (8–10 Hz) and alpha2 (10–13 Hz) frequency bands in comparison with the REST (random episodic silent thought) state. The effortful creation task (with overcoming of self-induced stereotypes-second stage of creation) was characterized by increases in waves with frequencies of 9–10 Hz, 10–11 Hz, 11–12 Hz in temporal, occipital areas and pronounced EEG synchronization in alpha1,2 frequency bands in comparison with the free creation condition. It was also found, that the participants with the higher originality scores in psychological tests demonstrated increased percentage of high frequencies (11–12 Hz in comparison with those who had lower originality scores. Obtained results support the role of alpha and theta frequency bands dynamics in creative cognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between the Conscious Self-Regulation of Schoolchildren’s Learning Activity, Their Test Anxiety Level, and the Final Exam Result in Mathematics
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010016 - 26 Dec 2019
Viewed by 781
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study on the relationship between conscious self-regulation of learning activity, test anxiety and performance in the Unified State Exam in mathematics in a sample of Russian students (N = 231). The Self-Regulation Profile of Learning Activity [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of a study on the relationship between conscious self-regulation of learning activity, test anxiety and performance in the Unified State Exam in mathematics in a sample of Russian students (N = 231). The Self-Regulation Profile of Learning Activity Questionnaire (SRPLAQ, 2015) and Spielberger’s Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) (Russian adaptation, 2004) were used to measure self-regulation and anxiety, respectively. The study also took into account the students’ results for the Unified State Exam in mathematics. The study revealed a negative correlation for the test anxiety indicators with both the exam results and regulatory characteristics. The cluster analysis identified groups of students that differed in their level of self-regulation development, anxiety indicators, and the math exam result. It appears that students who have the lowest exam results are characterized not only by high test anxiety rates, but also by lower self-regulation levels. The regression analysis within the groups showed that a higher exam result is largely associated with a person’s regulatory resources. Examination success is based not so much on the ability to cope with adverse functional states, but on the maturity and stability of an integrated system of conscious self-regulation, which determines students’ effectiveness in achieving educational goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Crisis of Meaning and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Resilience and Self-Control among Gifted Adults
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010015 - 26 Dec 2019
Viewed by 898
Abstract
Meaning in life is positively associated with mental and physical health, while a crisis of meaning is a painful existential state that is defined as a perceived lack of meaning. An earlier study has shown that academically high-achieving adults mostly experience existential fulfilment, [...] Read more.
Meaning in life is positively associated with mental and physical health, while a crisis of meaning is a painful existential state that is defined as a perceived lack of meaning. An earlier study has shown that academically high-achieving adults mostly experience existential fulfilment, while intellectually gifted adults have a disproportionally high risk of suffering from a crisis of meaning, which can weaken their potential fulfilment in life. To uncover the underlying mechanisms of how an existential crisis affects gifted adults’ mental health, this study examines the longitudinal relationship between crisis of meaning and subjective well-being via two mediators: self-control and resilience. A multiple mediation model was tested with longitudinal data (two times of measurement) of two gifted groups: intellectually gifted adults (HIQ; N = 100; 55% female) and academically high-achieving adults (HAA; N = 52; 29% female). Results suggest group differences: HIQ had higher crisis of meaning and lower self-control than the HAA. HIQ’s resilience (but not their self-control) and HAA’s self-control (but not their resilience) mediated the relationship between crisis of meaning and subjective well-being. These findings give initial insights about the distinct psychological needs of gifted adults and their different paths toward subjective well-being. These insights can be applied in future giftedness research, talent development programs, or counseling to support gifted individuals in living up to their potential. Thus, HIQ could benefit particularly from supporting their ability to cope with adversity, while HAA could benefit particularly from strengthening their willpower to modify undesired emotions, behaviors, and desires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Strengthening Marriages in Egypt: Impact of Divorce on Women
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010014 - 25 Dec 2019
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Divorce rates have been increasing around the world, and the Middle East is not immune to this reality. This pilot study investigates the phenomenological experiences of divorce for 20 Egyptian females. The study is qualitative, using in-depth interviews asking 14 questions that address [...] Read more.
Divorce rates have been increasing around the world, and the Middle East is not immune to this reality. This pilot study investigates the phenomenological experiences of divorce for 20 Egyptian females. The study is qualitative, using in-depth interviews asking 14 questions that address different aspects of struggling marriages and post-divorce life. Five main themes were derived using a conventional approach to content analysis. The themes are: Expectations before marriage, secret life, relational dynamics, mental health, and resilience. Several sub-themes were identified in each category. The themes and subthemes are discussed. What was surprising was that many women experienced a greater sense of resilience and level of empowerment as a result of their post-divorce process. Recommendations for future research are discussed, including a replication of the study with a more stratified sample group and inclusion of men prior to developing any interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Specific Features of Ethnic Identity in the Regions with Varying Degrees of Ethnic Diversity
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010013 - 25 Dec 2019
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Ethnic diversity describes the plurality of ethnicities within a group of people coexisting in one territory. The permanent presence of other cultures’ representatives can trigger a sense of jeopardy; a feeling that the prevailing way of life, its norms, and its values are [...] Read more.
Ethnic diversity describes the plurality of ethnicities within a group of people coexisting in one territory. The permanent presence of other cultures’ representatives can trigger a sense of jeopardy; a feeling that the prevailing way of life, its norms, and its values are challenged by strangers, which results in hostility to ethnic minorities living in the same territory. In this context, the study aimed at investigating specific features of the individual’s ethnic identity determined by the degree of the ethnic diversity of their living environment is of relevance. In order to define regions for the study, the comparative analysis of the ethnic diversity of Russian regions was conducted. Two regions for the study were defined: the Sverdlovsk region as a territory with average ethnic diversity and the Republic of Bashkortostan as a highly diverse region in terms of ethnicity. The respondents from less ethno-diverse areas exhibit global self-identification, the awareness of being a part of the world, and territorial identity. Differences in the degree of sustainability and the intensity of ethnic self-identification of the subjects from regions with varying degrees of ethnic diversity were revealed. Significant distinctions in the meaning of ethnicity for the compared groups of the respondents were found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Cubes or Pellets in Mental-Rotation Tests: Effects on Gender Differences and on the Performance in a Subsequent Math Test
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010012 - 23 Dec 2019
Viewed by 739
Abstract
In mental rotation, males consistently outperform females in performance and confidence. Both can affect math anxiety. In the present study, 107 undergraduate students (85 female) solved a mental-rotation test either with cube (C-MRT) or pellet (P-MRT) figures as stimulus material, then reported their [...] Read more.
In mental rotation, males consistently outperform females in performance and confidence. Both can affect math anxiety. In the present study, 107 undergraduate students (85 female) solved a mental-rotation test either with cube (C-MRT) or pellet (P-MRT) figures as stimulus material, then reported their confidence in their ability in the test, and solved a math test. Males performed better than females in both test versions: In the C-MRT, with a large effect, and in the P-MRT, with a small effect, and reported higher scores in their confidence. In math test performance, males scored higher than females when they solved the math test after the C-MRT but not after the P-MRT. The interactions of gender and stimulus material were not significant. Correlations between confidence and math test performance were large for males and not significant for females. Stereotype threat and lift effects are discussed as possible reasons for the varying effects of the stimulus material on the MRT performance of male and female participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Strangers, Friends, and Lovers Show Different Physiological Synchrony in Different Emotional States
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010011 - 22 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
The mere copresence of another person synchronizes physiological signals, but no study has systematically investigated the effects of the type of emotional state and the type of relationship in eliciting dyadic physiological synchrony. In this study, we investigated the synchrony of pairs of [...] Read more.
The mere copresence of another person synchronizes physiological signals, but no study has systematically investigated the effects of the type of emotional state and the type of relationship in eliciting dyadic physiological synchrony. In this study, we investigated the synchrony of pairs of strangers, companions, and romantic partners while watching a series of video clips designed to elicit different emotions. Maximal cross-correlation of heart rate variability (HRV) was used to quantify dyadic synchrony. The findings suggest that an existing social relationship might reduce the predisposition to conform one’s autonomic responses to a friend or romantic partner during social situations that do not require direct interaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Individual Response to Stressors and Efficiency in Project Activities
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10010010 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 698
Abstract
This article investigates the way a graded approach can be implemented in the organization of the project-based learning process in accordance with the personality characteristics of subjects. This study is based on the results analysis of the key features of project-based learning as [...] Read more.
This article investigates the way a graded approach can be implemented in the organization of the project-based learning process in accordance with the personality characteristics of subjects. This study is based on the results analysis of the key features of project-based learning as one of the methods for developing human resources. The assessment of subjects’ individual response to stressors at different project stages is justified to be relevant in order to improve project efficiency in the framework of the learning process. The assessment of the individual response of subjects to stressors was carried out according to the activation dynamics of cerebral hemispheres. The research target was to determine features of the subjects’ individual responses to the project activity stressors and to identify specifics of the individual responding at each of its stages. The study involved 56 final-year students of different majors. Aktivatsiometr ATs-9K, a device for comprehensive psychophysiological diagnosis designed by Yu. A. Tsagarelli, was used to monitor hemispheric activation. This hardware and software complex consists of a device diagnosing the activation of cerebral hemispheres based on the galvanic skin response and PC software for automatic data processing. The individual typological indicators of activation (13 measurements in a familiar environment) and activity-situational indicators of activation (seven single measurements at different stages of the project activity) were calculated. The stress response was diagnosed if the activity-situational activation indicators of the cerebral hemispheres exceeded the individual typological activation indices by more than 1.5 times. The results of the empirical study show different types of individual responses to stressors at different stages of the project activity. The analysis of the profiles of individual responses to stressors made it possible to differentiate subjects, and also identify groups of students with the maximum resources for each stage of activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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