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Med. Sci., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2016) – 4 articles

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Article
First Evidence for the Disease-Stage, Cell-Type, and Virus Specificity of microRNAs during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection
Med. Sci. 2016, 4(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci4020010 - 13 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
The potential involvement of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in HIV infection is well documented, and evidence suggests that HIV modulates and also dysregulates host miRNAs involved in maintaining the host innate immune system. Moreover, the dysregulation of host miRNAs by HIV also effectively interferes [...] Read more.
The potential involvement of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in HIV infection is well documented, and evidence suggests that HIV modulates and also dysregulates host miRNAs involved in maintaining the host innate immune system. Moreover, the dysregulation of host miRNAs by HIV also effectively interferes directly with the host gene expression. In this study, we have simultaneously evaluated the expression of host miRNAs in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells derived from HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals (viremic and aviremic individuals while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), therapy-naïve long-term non-progressors (LTNP), and HIV-negative (HIV–) healthy controls. miRNAs were run on Affymetrix V2 chips, and the differential expression between HIV+ and HIV− samples, along with intergroup comparisons, was derived using PARTEK software, using an FDR of 5% and an adjusted p-value < 0.05. The miR-199a-5p was found to be HIV-specific and expressed in all HIV+ groups as opposed to HIV– controls. Moreover, these are the first studies to reveal clearly the highly discriminatory miRNAs at the level of the disease state, cell type, and HIV-specific miRNAs. Full article
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Article
A Soxhlet Extract of Gongronema latifolium Retains Moderate Blood Glucose Lowering Effect and Produces Structural Recovery in the Pancreas of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats
Med. Sci. 2016, 4(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci4020009 - 25 Apr 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Background: Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL) possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Methods: Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were [...] Read more.
Background: Gongronema latifolium Benth. (GL) possesses considerable glucose lowering effects able to be utilized on a large-scale. This paper investigates the effects of a Soxhlet extract on hyperglycemia, Langerhans islets and glucose uptake by abdominal muscles. Methods: Ethanol and a Soxhlet apparatus were used to obtain GL ethanolic Soxhlet extract (GLES). It was then administered to randomly-segregated male Sprague-Dawley, normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats, using oral gavage to evaluate blood glucose levels (BGLs), serum lipid profile, insulin levels and the pancreas post-treatment. Results: GLES significantly (p < 0.05) decreased BGLs of normal rats in glucose tolerance testing at a dose of 2 g/kg b.w. but failed to do so in diabetic rats undergoing acute 7-h treatment. Given twice-daily, 1 g/kg b.w. of GLES moderately controlled diabetic BGLs starting from day 10. After 14 days of treatment, 1 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg b.w. of GLES caused 44% and 50% respective increases in the average area of Langerhans islets compared to DC. Using isolated rat abdominal muscle, GLES was found to be a mild insulin-sensitizer. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the known glucose-lowering phytosterol, Sitostenone. Conclusion: Despite retaining moderate antidiabetic activity, Soxhlet extraction of Gongronema latifolium probably leads to the destruction of active heat-liable compounds. Full article
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Article
Chemo-Immunotherapy Using Lentinan for the Treatment of Gastric Cancer with Liver Metastases
Med. Sci. 2016, 4(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci4020008 - 07 Apr 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3621
Abstract
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy is the main treatment option for advanced gastric cancer when the tumor is inoperable. Despite recent advances in chemotherapeutic agents, the prognosis of unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer remains extremely [...] Read more.
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy is the main treatment option for advanced gastric cancer when the tumor is inoperable. Despite recent advances in chemotherapeutic agents, the prognosis of unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer remains extremely poor. In Japan, combination therapy including S-1 and cisplatin is the standard first-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer; however, the five-year survival rate remains very low. Lentinan, the backbone of beta-(1,3)-glucan with beta-(1,6) branches, an active ingredient purified from Shiitake mushrooms, has been approved as a biological response modifier for the treatment of gastric cancer. This agent has been used in combination with oral fluoropyrimidines to improve the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. A retrospective chart review on 138 metastatic gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy was performed in Nagoya Memorial Hospital from 1 September 2010 to 31 August 2015. 12 patients with liver metastases were treated by lentinan in combination with S-1-based chemotherapy. The rate of objective response was 42% (5/12) and the disease control rate was 83% (10/12) in response to chemo-immunotherapy using lentinan, with a median overall survival of 407 days (95% CI: 207–700 days). Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Electrolytes Imbalance and Dyslipidemia in Diabetic Patients
Med. Sci. 2016, 4(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci4020007 - 01 Apr 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2585 | Correction
Abstract
Electrolytes and Lipids have always played significant roles, and changes in their concentrations gives good indications of disease progression in a number of non-communicable diseases. Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in the community. Diabetics may suffer from electrolyte disorders due [...] Read more.
Electrolytes and Lipids have always played significant roles, and changes in their concentrations gives good indications of disease progression in a number of non-communicable diseases. Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in the community. Diabetics may suffer from electrolyte disorders due to complications of diabetes mellitus and the medication they receive. Serum glucose, electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl and Ca++), and lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-c) were determined in 100 diabetics and in non-diabetic subjects. All the diabetic patients had a significant (p < 0.001) increase in glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, chloride and calcium levels. There was significant (p < 0.001) decrease in the serum levels of Na+ and K+ in all diabetics. It was concluded that differences in lipids and electrolytes found in diabetics may have great potential as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice and have a significant effect upon the risk of contracting many diseases. Full article
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