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Geosciences, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2015) – 3 articles , Pages 222-285

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Open AccessArticle
Snow Depth Retrieval with UAS Using Photogrammetric Techniques
Geosciences 2015, 5(3), 264-285; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences5030264 - 10 Jul 2015
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 4447
Abstract
Alpine areas pose challenges for many existing remote sensing methods for snow depth retrieval, thus leading to uncertainty in water forecasting and budgeting. Herein, we present the results of a field campaign conducted in Tasmania, Australia in 2013 from which estimates of snow [...] Read more.
Alpine areas pose challenges for many existing remote sensing methods for snow depth retrieval, thus leading to uncertainty in water forecasting and budgeting. Herein, we present the results of a field campaign conducted in Tasmania, Australia in 2013 from which estimates of snow depth were derived using a low-cost photogrammetric approach on-board a micro unmanned aircraft system (UAS). Using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors mounted on a multi-rotor UAS and photogrammetric image processing techniques, the results demonstrate that snow depth can be accurately retrieved by differencing two surface models corresponding to the snow-free and snow-covered scenes, respectively. In addition to accurate snow depth retrieval, we show that high-resolution (50 cm) spatially continuous snow depth maps can be created using this methodology. Two types of photogrammetric bundle adjustment (BA) routines are implemented in this study to determine the optimal estimates of sensor position and orientation, in addition to 3D scene information; conventional BA (which relies on measured ground control points) and direct BA (which does not require ground control points). Error sources that affect the accuracy of the BA and subsequent snow depth reconstruction are discussed. The results indicate the UAS is capable of providing high-resolution and high-accuracy (<10 cm) estimates of snow depth over a small alpine area (~0.7 ha) with significant snow accumulation (depths greater than one meter) at a fraction of the cost of full-size aerial survey approaches. The RMSE of estimated snow depths using the conventional BA approach is 9.6 cm, whereas the direct BA is characterized by larger error, with an RMSE of 18.4 cm. If a simple affine transformation is applied to the point cloud derived from the direct BA, the overall RMSE is reduced to 8.8 cm RMSE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS for Geomorphological Mapping)
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Open AccessArticle
Geologic History of Eocene Stonerose Fossil Beds, Republic, Washington, USA
Geosciences 2015, 5(3), 243-263; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences5030243 - 06 Jul 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2229
Abstract
Eocene lakebed sediments at Stonerose Interpretive Center in Republic, Washington, USA are one of the most important Cenozoic fossil sites in North America, having gained international attention because of the abundance and diversity of plant, insect, and fish fossils. This report describes the [...] Read more.
Eocene lakebed sediments at Stonerose Interpretive Center in Republic, Washington, USA are one of the most important Cenozoic fossil sites in North America, having gained international attention because of the abundance and diversity of plant, insect, and fish fossils. This report describes the first detailed geologic investigation of this unusual lagerstätten. Strata are gradationally divided into three units: Siliceous shale that originated as diatomite, overlain by laminated mudstone, which is in turn overlain by massive beds of lithic sandstone. The sedimentary sequence records topographic and hydrologic changes that caused a deep lake to become progressively filled with volcaniclastic detritus from earlier volcanic episodes. The location of the ancient lake within an active graben suggests that displacements along the boundary faults were the most likely trigger for changes in depositional processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Petrologic and Minerochemical Trends of Acapulcoites, Winonaites and Lodranites: New Evidence from Image Analysis and EMPA Investigations
Geosciences 2015, 5(3), 222-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences5030222 - 02 Jul 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
A comprehensive classification of primitive achondrites is difficult due to the high compositional and textural variability and the low number of samples available. Besides oxygen isotopic analysis, other minerochemical and textural parameters may provide a useful tool to solve taxonomic and genetic problems [...] Read more.
A comprehensive classification of primitive achondrites is difficult due to the high compositional and textural variability and the low number of samples available. Besides oxygen isotopic analysis, other minerochemical and textural parameters may provide a useful tool to solve taxonomic and genetic problems related to these achondrites. The results of a detailed modal, textural and minerochemical analysis of a set of primitive achondrites are presented and compared with literature data. All the samples show an extremely variable modal composition among both silicate and opaque phases. A general trend of troilite depletion vs. silicate fraction enrichment has been observed, with differences among coarse-grained and fine-grained meteorites. In regard to the mineral chemistry, olivine shows marked differences between the acapulcoite-lodranite and winonaite groups, while a compositional equilibrium between matrix and chondrules for both groups, probably due to the scarce influence of metamorphic grade on this phase, was observed. The analysis of Cr and Mn in clinopyroxene revealed two separate clusters for the acapulcoite/lodranite and winonaite groups, while the analysis of the reduction state highlighted three separate clusters. An estimate of equilibrium temperatures for the acapulcoite-lodranite and winonaite groups is provided. Finally, proposals regarding the genetic processes of these groups are discussed. Full article
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