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Open AccessArticle

Zika Virus Infection in Pregnancy: Advanced Diagnostic Approaches in Dengue-Naive and Dengue-Experienced Pregnant Women and Possible Implication for Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protection

1
Molecular Virology Unit, Microbiology and Virology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2
Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3
Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
4
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy
5
Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy
6
Section of Microbiology, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010056
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 24 December 2019 / Accepted: 25 December 2019 / Published: 28 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Vector Borne Infections: A Novel Threat for Global Health)
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been linked to congenital defects in fetuses and infants, as exemplified by the microcephaly epidemic in Brazil. Given the overlapping presence of Dengue virus (DENV) in the majority of ZIKV epidemic regions, advanced diagnostic approaches need to be evaluated to establish the role of pre-existing DENV immunity in ZIKV infection. From 2015 to 2017, five pregnant women with suspected ZIKV infection were investigated in Pavia, Italy. Among the five pregnant women, three were DENV–ZIKV immunologically cross-reactive, and two were DENV-naïve. Advanced diagnosis included the following: (i) NS1 blockade-of-binding (BOB) ELISA assay for ZIKV specific antibodies and (ii) ELISpot assay for the quantification of effector memory T cells for DENV and ZIKV. These novel assays allowed to distinguish between related flavivirus infections. The three DENV-experienced mothers did not transmit ZIKV to the fetus, while the two DENV-naive mothers transmitted ZIKV to the fetus. Pre-existing immunity in DENV experienced mothers might play a role in cross-protection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zika virus; congenital infection; flavivirus; cross-reactivity; cross-protection Zika virus; congenital infection; flavivirus; cross-reactivity; cross-protection
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Zavattoni, M.; Rovida, F.; Percivalle, E.; Cassaniti, I.; Sarasini, A.; Arossa, A.; Tassis, B.; Bollani, L.; Lombardi, G.; Orcesi, S.; Baldanti, F. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnancy: Advanced Diagnostic Approaches in Dengue-Naive and Dengue-Experienced Pregnant Women and Possible Implication for Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protection. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 56.

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