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Open AccessArticle

Moraxella nonliquefaciens and M. osloensis Are Important Moraxella Species That Cause Ocular Infections

1
Department of Ophthalmology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
2
Clinical Laboratory―Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 16148, USA
3
The Charles T. Campbell Ophthalmic Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
4
Department of Biology, Lycoming College, Williamsport, PA 17701, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7060163
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights Into The Molecular Pathogenesis of Ocular Infections)
Moraxella is an ocular bacterial pathogen isolated in cases of keratitis, conjunctivitis, and endophthalmitis. Gram-negative brick-shaped diplobacilli from ocular specimens, and slow growth in culture, are early indications of Moraxella ocular infection; however, identifying Moraxella to species can be complex and inconsistent. In this study, bacteria consistent with Moraxella were identified to species using: (1) DNA sequencing coupled with vancomycin susceptibility, (2) MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and (3) the Biolog ID system. Study samples consisted of nine ATCC Moraxella controls, 82 isolates from keratitis, 21 isolates from conjunctivitis, and 4 isolates from endophthalmitis. The ATCC controls were correctly identified. For keratitis, 66 (80.5%) were identified as M. nonliquefaciens, 7 (9.0%) as M. lacunata, 5 (6%) as M. osloensis, 2 (2.5%) as Acinetobacter lwoffii, 1 (1.0%) as M. bovis/nonliquefaciens, and 1 (1.0%) as M. osloensis/nonliquefaciens. For conjunctivitis, 9 (43.0%) were identified as M. osloensis, 6 (29.0%) as M. nonliquefaciens, 3 (14.3%) as Roseomonas, 2 (9.5%) as Acinetobacter (parvus, junii), and 1 (4.5%) as M. catarrhalis/nonliquefaciens. From endophthalmitis, 3 of 4 of the isolates were M. nonliquefaciens. Overall, M. nonliquefaciens and M. osloensis were identified in 70% (75 of 107) and 13% (14 of 107) of cases, respectively, totaling 83% (89 of 107). M. nonliquefaciens and M. osloensis are important bacterial pathogens of the eye as determined by DNA sequencing, MALDI-TOF MS, and Biolog. Although Moraxella catarrhalis is a clinical pathogen, other species of Moraxella appear to have a prominent role in eye infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Moraxella; keratitis; conjunctivitis; endophthalmitis; eye infections; DNA sequencing; MALDI-TOF MS; Biolog Moraxella; keratitis; conjunctivitis; endophthalmitis; eye infections; DNA sequencing; MALDI-TOF MS; Biolog
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LaCroce, S.J.; Wilson, M.N.; Romanowski, J.E.; Newman, J.D.; Jhanji, V.; Shanks, R.M.Q.; Kowalski, R.P. Moraxella nonliquefaciens and M. osloensis Are Important Moraxella Species That Cause Ocular Infections. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 163.

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