Next Article in Journal
Modeling the Reduction of Salmonella spp. on Chicken Breasts and Wingettes during Scalding for QMRA of the Poultry Supply Chain in China
Next Article in Special Issue
Overexpression of RAD51 Enables PCR-Based Gene Targeting in Lager Yeast
Previous Article in Journal
Moraxella nonliquefaciens and M. osloensis Are Important Moraxella Species That Cause Ocular Infections
Previous Article in Special Issue
Exploitation of Three Non-Conventional Yeast Species in the Brewing Process
Open AccessArticle

Modulating Fermentative, Varietal and Aging Aromas of Wine Using non-Saccharomyces Yeasts in a Sequential Inoculation Approach

Laboratorio de Análisis del Aroma y Enología (LAAE), Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2) (UNIZAR-CITA), Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7060164
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-conventional Yeasts: Genomics and Biotechnology)
The goal of this study is to assess to what extent non-Saccharomyces yeasts can introduce aromatic changes of industrial interest in fermentative, varietal and aged aromas of wine. Aroma precursors from Riesling and Garnacha grapes were extracted and used in two independent sequential experiments. Synthetic musts were inoculated, either with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) or with Pichia kluyveri (Pk), Torulaspora delbrueckii (Td) or Lachancea thermotolerans (Lt), followed by Sc. The fermented samples were subjected to anoxic aging at 50 °C for 0, 1, 2 or 5 weeks before an aroma analysis. The fermentative aroma profiles were consistently changed by non-Saccharomyces: all strains induced smaller levels of isoamyl alcohol; Pk produced huge levels of aromatic acetates and can induce high levels of fatty acids (FA) and their ethyl esters (EE); Td produced large levels of branched acids and of their EE after aging, and induced smaller levels of FA and their EE; Lt produced reduced levels of FA and their EE. The varietal aroma was also deeply affected: TDN (1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2- dihydronaphthalene) levels in aged wines were reduced by Pk and enhanced by Lt in Garnacha; the levels of vinylphenols can be much reduced, particularly by Lt and Pk. TD and Lt can increase linalool and geraniol in young, but not in aged wines. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermentation; aroma precursors; glycosides; aroma modulation; aging; fruitiness; kerosene; floral notes; phenolic notes fermentation; aroma precursors; glycosides; aroma modulation; aging; fruitiness; kerosene; floral notes; phenolic notes
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira, I.; Ferreira, V. Modulating Fermentative, Varietal and Aging Aromas of Wine Using non-Saccharomyces Yeasts in a Sequential Inoculation Approach. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 164.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop