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Open AccessArticle

Short-Term Probiotic Administration Increases Fecal-Anti Candida Activity in Healthy Subjects

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, University of Rome-Sapienza, Rome 00185, Italy
Department of Experimental Medicine- Virology section, University of Rome-Sapienza, Rome 00185, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 162;
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: From Quality Assessment to Microbial Ecology)
Background: Candida albicans’ ability to evade host immune responses represents a serious threat for vulnerable patients. Objectives: To investigate if (1) feces from healthy subjects exert anti-Candida activity; (2) fecal anti-Candida activity is modified by probiotic administration and (3) different probiotic differently modulate anti-Candida activity. Patients and methods: Feces from healthy donors were analyzed before and after seven days of dietary supplementation with two different probiotic formulations (VSL#3®; Vivomixx®). Candida albicans was cultured with decreasing concentrations of diluted feces, obtained before and after the treatment period. The relationship between anti-Candida activity of feces, interferon-α, anti-interferon-α antibodies and the expression of MxA, ISG15 and IFNAR1 was also evaluated. Results: Feces obtained prior to probiotic intake and feces collected after supplementation with VSL#3® did not affect Candida albicans growth. On the contrary, a 3log10 inhibition of Candida development was observed after Vivomixx® intake. Interferon-α played a role in the inhibition of Candida growth. Conclusion: Fecal anti-Candida activity was not observed prior to probiotic supplementation. Seven days of administration of Vivomixx® increased fecal anti-Candida activity, the same effect was not observed after intake of VSL#3®. The probiotic-induced anti-Candida activity seems to be related to an increased local production and release of interferon-α. Clinical trials are needed to determine if a short pretreatment with specific probiotic formulations may increase anti-Candida defenses in patients at risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida; fecal water; probiotics; Vivomixx®; VSL#3® Candida; fecal water; probiotics; Vivomixx®; VSL#3®
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De Angelis, M.; Scagnolari, C.; Oliva, A.; Cavallari, E.N.; Celani, L.; Santinelli, L.; Innocenti, G.P.; Borrazzo, C.; Ceccarelli, G.; Vullo, V.; d’Ettorre, G. Short-Term Probiotic Administration Increases Fecal-Anti Candida Activity in Healthy Subjects. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 162.

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