Next Article in Journal
Discovery of Antibacterial Dietary Spices That Target Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
Next Article in Special Issue
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Outbreaks in West Java Indonesia 2015–2016: Clinical Manifestation and Associated Risk Factors
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of Pseudomonas in Heterotrophic Nitrification: A Case Study on Shrimp Ponds (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Soc Trang Province
Open AccessReview

The Emergence and Decennary Distribution of Clade HPAI H5Nx

College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 156;
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Avian Influenza Virus Research)
Reassortment events among influenza viruses occur naturally and may lead to the development of new and different subtypes which often ignite the possibility of an influenza outbreak. Between 2008 and 2010, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 of the N1 subtype from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96-like (Gs/GD) lineage generated novel reassortants by introducing other neuraminidase (NA) subtypes reported to cause most outbreaks in poultry. With the extensive divergence of the H5 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences of documented viruses, the WHO/FAO/OIE H5 Evolutionary Working Group clustered these viruses into a systematic and unified nomenclature of clade currently known as “H5Nx” viruses. The rapid emergence and circulation of these viruses, namely, H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8, and the regenerated H5N1, are of great concern based on their pandemic potential. Knowing the evolution and emergence of these novel reassortants helps to better understand their complex nature. The eruption of reports of each H5Nx reassortant through time demonstrates that it could persist beyond its usual seasonal activity, intensifying the possibility of these emerging viruses’ pandemic potential. This review paper provides an overview of the emergence of each novel HPAI H5Nx virus as well as its current epidemiological distribution. View Full-Text
Keywords: avian influenza; dissemination; evolution; epidemiology; avian; H5Nx avian influenza; dissemination; evolution; epidemiology; avian; H5Nx
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Antigua, K.J.C.; Choi, W.-S.; Baek, Y.H.; Song, M.-S. The Emergence and Decennary Distribution of Clade HPAI H5Nx. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 156.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop