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Article

Both Constitutive and Infection-Responsive Secondary Metabolites Linked to Resistance against Austropuccinia psidii (Myrtle Rust) in Melaleuca quinquenervia

1
School of Science, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia
2
Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Richmond, NSW 2753, Australia
3
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute, Menangle, NSW 2568, Australia
4
Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Queensland Government, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia
5
The Plant Breeding Institute, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Essaid Ait Barka
Microorganisms 2022, 10(2), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020383
Received: 14 December 2021 / Revised: 24 January 2022 / Accepted: 26 January 2022 / Published: 7 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Microbe Interactions)
Austropuccinia psidii is a fungal plant pathogen that infects species within the Myrtaceae, causing the disease myrtle rust. Myrtle rust is causing declines in populations within natural and managed ecosystems and is expected to result in species extinctions. Despite this, variation in response to A. psidii exist within some species, from complete susceptibility to resistance that prevents or limits infection by the pathogen. Untargeted metabolomics using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ion Mobility followed by analysis using MetaboAnalyst 3.0, was used to explore the chemical defence profiles of resistant, hypersensitive and susceptible phenotypes within Melaleuca quinquenervia during the early stages of A. psidii infection. We were able to identify three separate pools of secondary metabolites: (i) metabolites classified structurally as flavonoids that were naturally higher in the leaves of resistant individuals prior to infection, (ii) organoheterocyclic and carbohydrate-related metabolites that varied with the level of host resistance post-infection, and (iii) metabolites from the terpenoid pathways that were responsive to disease progression regardless of resistance phenotype suggesting that these play a minimal role in disease resistance during the early stages of colonization of this species. Based on the classes of these secondary metabolites, our results provide an improved understanding of key pathways that could be linked more generally to rust resistance with particular application within Melaleuca. View Full-Text
Keywords: Austropuccinia psidii; Melaleuca quinquenervia; myrtle rust; metabolomics; flavonoids; terpenoids Austropuccinia psidii; Melaleuca quinquenervia; myrtle rust; metabolomics; flavonoids; terpenoids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moffitt, M.C.; Wong-Bajracharya, J.; Shuey, L.S.; Park, R.F.; Pegg, G.S.; Plett, J.M. Both Constitutive and Infection-Responsive Secondary Metabolites Linked to Resistance against Austropuccinia psidii (Myrtle Rust) in Melaleuca quinquenervia. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 383. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020383

AMA Style

Moffitt MC, Wong-Bajracharya J, Shuey LS, Park RF, Pegg GS, Plett JM. Both Constitutive and Infection-Responsive Secondary Metabolites Linked to Resistance against Austropuccinia psidii (Myrtle Rust) in Melaleuca quinquenervia. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(2):383. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020383

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moffitt, Michelle C., Johanna Wong-Bajracharya, Louise S. Shuey, Robert F. Park, Geoff S. Pegg, and Jonathan M. Plett. 2022. "Both Constitutive and Infection-Responsive Secondary Metabolites Linked to Resistance against Austropuccinia psidii (Myrtle Rust) in Melaleuca quinquenervia" Microorganisms 10, no. 2: 383. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020383

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