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Open AccessArticle

Immunogenicity of Non-Living Anthrax Vaccine Candidates in Cattle and Protective Efficacy of Immune Sera in A/J Mouse Model Compared to the Sterne Live Spore Vaccine

1
Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Pretoria 0110, South Africa
2
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri 600230, Nigeria
3
Moredun Scientific, Pentlands Science Park, Edinburgh EH26 0PZ, UK
4
Design Biologix, Building 43b CSIR, Meiring Naude Road, Brummeria 0184, South Africa
5
Department of Livestock Infectiology and Environmental Hygiene, Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70599, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070557
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 10 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccines and Therapeutic Developments)
The Sterne live spore vaccine (SLSV, Bacillus anthracis strain 34F2) is the veterinary vaccine of choice against anthrax though contra-indicated for use with antimicrobials. However, the use of non-living anthrax vaccine (NLAV) candidates can overcome the SLSV limitation. In this study, cattle were vaccinated with either of the NLAV (purified recombinant PA (PrPA) or crude rPA (CrPA) and formaldehyde-inactivated spores (FIS of B. anthracis strain 34F2) and emulsigen-D®/alhydrogel® adjuvants) or SLSV. The immunogenicity of the NLAV and SLSV was assessed and the protective efficacies evaluated using a passive immunization mouse model. Polyclonal IgG (including the IgG1 subset) and IgM responses increased significantly across all vaccination groups after the first vaccination. Individual IgG subsets titres peaked significantly with all vaccines used after the second vaccination at week 5 and remained significant at week 12 when compared to week 0. The toxin neutralization (TNA) titres of the NLAV vaccinated cattle groups showed similar trends to those observed with the ELISA titres, except that the former were lower, but still significant, when compared to week 0. The opsonophagocytic assay indicated good antibody opsonizing responses with 75% (PrPA+FIS), 66% (CrPA+FIS) and 80% (SLSV) phagocytosis following spores opsonization. In the passive protection test, A/J mice transfused with purified IgG from cattle vaccinated with PrPA+FIS+Emulsigen-D®/Alhydrogel® and SLSV had 73% and 75% protection from challenge with B. anthracis strain 34F2 spores, respectively, whereas IgG from cattle vaccinated with CrPA+FIS+Emulsigen-D®/Alhydrogel® offered insignificant protection of 20%. There was no difference in protective immune response in cattle vaccinated twice with either the PrPA+FIS or SLSV. Moreover, PrPA+FIS did not show any residual side effects in vaccinated cattle. These results suggest that the immunogenicity and protective efficacy induced by the NLAV (PrPA+FIS) in the cattle and passive mouse protection test, respectively, are comparable to that induced by the standard SLSV. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthrax; non-living; vaccine; immunogenicity; cattle anthrax; non-living; vaccine; immunogenicity; cattle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jauro, S.; C. Ndumnego, O.; Ellis, C.; Buys, A.; Beyer, W.; van Heerden, H. Immunogenicity of Non-Living Anthrax Vaccine Candidates in Cattle and Protective Efficacy of Immune Sera in A/J Mouse Model Compared to the Sterne Live Spore Vaccine. Pathogens 2020, 9, 557. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070557

AMA Style

Jauro S, C. Ndumnego O, Ellis C, Buys A, Beyer W, van Heerden H. Immunogenicity of Non-Living Anthrax Vaccine Candidates in Cattle and Protective Efficacy of Immune Sera in A/J Mouse Model Compared to the Sterne Live Spore Vaccine. Pathogens. 2020; 9(7):557. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070557

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jauro, Solomon; C. Ndumnego, Okechukwu; Ellis, Charlotte; Buys, Angela; Beyer, Wolfgang; van Heerden, Henriette. 2020. "Immunogenicity of Non-Living Anthrax Vaccine Candidates in Cattle and Protective Efficacy of Immune Sera in A/J Mouse Model Compared to the Sterne Live Spore Vaccine" Pathogens 9, no. 7: 557. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070557

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