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Open AccessArticle

Foetal Immune Response Activation and High Replication Rate during Generation of Classical Swine Fever Congenital Infection

1
OIE Reference Laboratory for Classical Swine Fever, IRTA-CReSA, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
2
Departament d’Agricultura, Ramadería, Pesca, Alimentació I Medi Natural i Rural (DAAM), 08007 Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain
3
Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), Mayabeque 32700, Cuba
4
Servei de Diagnòstic de Patologia Veterinària (SDPV), Departament de Sanitat I d’Anatomia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed equally.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040285
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 14 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical Swine Fever)
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) induces trans-placental transmission and congenital viral persistence; however, the available information is not updated. Three groups of sows were infected at mid-gestation with either a high, moderate or low virulence CSFV strains. Foetuses from sows infected with high or low virulence strain were obtained before delivery and piglets from sows infected with the moderate virulence strain were studied for 32 days after birth. The low virulence strain generated lower CSFV RNA load and the lowest proportion of trans-placental transmission. Severe lesions and mummifications were observed in foetuses infected with the high virulence strain. Sows infected with the moderately virulence strain showed stillbirths and mummifications, one of them delivered live piglets, all CSFV persistently infected. Efficient trans-placental transmission was detected in sows infected with the high and moderate virulence strain. The trans-placental transmission occurred before the onset of antibody response, which started at 14 days after infection in these sows and was influenced by replication efficacy of the infecting strain. Fast and solid immunity after sow vaccination is required for prevention of congenital viral persistence. An increase in the CD8+ T-cell subset and IFN-alpha response was found in viremic foetuses, or in those that showed higher viral replication in tissue, showing the CSFV recognition capacity by the foetal immune system after trans-placental infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: classical swine fever; virulence; trans-placental transmission; persistent congenital infection; foetal immune response; classical swine fever virus; replication; sows classical swine fever; virulence; trans-placental transmission; persistent congenital infection; foetal immune response; classical swine fever virus; replication; sows
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Bohórquez, J.A.; Muñoz-González, S.; Pérez-Simó, M.; Muñoz, I.; Rosell, R.; Coronado, L.; Domingo, M.; Ganges, L. Foetal Immune Response Activation and High Replication Rate during Generation of Classical Swine Fever Congenital Infection. Pathogens 2020, 9, 285.

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