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The Complex Relationship between HTLV-1 and Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay (NMD)

Laboratory of Biology and Modelling of the Cell (LBMC), ENS de Lyon, Univ Lyon, CNRS UMR 5239, INSERM U1210, 46 allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon, France
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Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040287
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 12 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HTLV-1 Disease)
Before the establishment of an adaptive immune response, retroviruses can be targeted by several cellular host factors at different stages of the viral replication cycle. This intrinsic immunity relies on a large diversity of antiviral processes. In the case of HTLV-1 infection, these active innate host defense mechanisms are debated. Among these mechanisms, we focused on an RNA decay pathway called nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which can target multiple viral RNAs, including HTLV-1 unspliced RNA, as has been recently demonstrated. NMD is a co-translational process that depends on the RNA helicase UPF1 and regulates the expression of multiple types of host mRNAs. RNA sensitivity to NMD depends on mRNA organization and the ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) composition. HTLV-1 has evolved several means to evade the NMD threat, leading to NMD inhibition. In the early steps of infection, NMD inhibition favours the production of HTLV-1 infectious particles, which may contribute to the survival of the fittest clones despite genome instability; however, its direct long-term impact remains to be investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: HTLV-1; retrovirus; antiviral process; nonsense mRNA decay; UPF1 HTLV-1; retrovirus; antiviral process; nonsense mRNA decay; UPF1
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Prochasson, L.; Jalinot, P.; Mocquet, V. The Complex Relationship between HTLV-1 and Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay (NMD). Pathogens 2020, 9, 287.

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