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Biochemical Changes in Leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese Infected by Bois Noir Phytoplasma

1
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
2
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (DAFE), University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040269
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2020 / Accepted: 3 April 2020 / Published: 7 April 2020
Bois noir is a disease associated with the presence of phytoplasma ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ belonging to the Stolbur group (subgroup 16SrXII-A), which has a heavy economic impact on grapevines. This study focused on the changes induced by phytoplasma in terms of the profile and amount of secondary metabolites synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway in leaves of Vitis vinifera L. red-berried cultivar Sangiovese. Metabolic alterations were assessed according to the disease progression through measurements of soluble sugars, chlorophyll, and phenolic compounds produced by plant hosts, in response to disease on symptomatic and asymptomatic Bois noir-positive plants. Significant differences were revealed in the amount of soluble sugars, chlorophyll, and accumulation/reduction of some compounds synthesized in the phenylpropanoid pathway of Bois noir-positive and negative grapevine leaves. Our results showed a marked increase in phenolic and flavonoid production and a parallel decrease in lignin content in Bois noir-positive compared to negative leaves. Interestingly, some parameters (chlorophyll a, soluble sugars, total phenolic or flavonoids content, proanthocyanidins, quercetin) differed between Bois noir-positive and negative leaves regardless of symptoms, indicating measurable biochemical changes in asymptomatic leaves. Our grapevine cultivar Sangiovese results highlighted an extensive modulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway as a defense mechanism activated by the host plant in response to Bois noir disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bois noir; grapevine cultivar (cv.) Sangiovese; plant-phytoplasma interaction; phenylpropanoid compounds Bois noir; grapevine cultivar (cv.) Sangiovese; plant-phytoplasma interaction; phenylpropanoid compounds
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Negro, C.; Sabella, E.; Nicolì, F.; Pierro, R.; Materazzi, A.; Panattoni, A.; Aprile, A.; Nutricati, E.; Vergine, M.; Miceli, A.; De Bellis, L.; Luvisi, A. Biochemical Changes in Leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese Infected by Bois Noir Phytoplasma. Pathogens 2020, 9, 269.

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