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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Papillomaviruses Go Retro

by Jian Xie 1, Pengwei Zhang 1, Mac Crite 2 and Daniel DiMaio 1,3,4,5,*
Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005, USA
Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale School of Medicine, 295 Congress Avenue, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208040, New Haven, CT 06520-8040, USA
Department of Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry, Yale University, P.O. Box 208024, New Haven, CT 06520-8024, USA
Yale Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 267;
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 2 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 April 2020 / Published: 7 April 2020
Human papillomaviruses are important pathogens responsible for approximately 5% of cancer as well as other important human diseases, but many aspects of the papillomavirus life cycle are poorly understood. To undergo genome replication, HPV DNA must traffic from the cell surface to the nucleus. Recent findings have revolutionized our understanding of HPV entry, showing that it requires numerous cellular proteins and proceeds via a series of intracellular membrane-bound vesicles that comprise the retrograde transport pathway. This paper reviews the evidence supporting this unique entry mechanism with a focus on the crucial step by which the incoming virus particle is transferred from the endosome into the retrograde pathway. This new understanding provides novel insights into basic cellular biology and suggests novel rational approaches to inhibit HPV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: HPV; papillomavirus; retromer; cell-penetrating peptide; retrograde trafficking; virus entry; cervical cancer; endosome; γ-secretase HPV; papillomavirus; retromer; cell-penetrating peptide; retrograde trafficking; virus entry; cervical cancer; endosome; γ-secretase
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Xie, J.; Zhang, P.; Crite, M.; DiMaio, D. Papillomaviruses Go Retro. Pathogens 2020, 9, 267.

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