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Is Female Entrepreneurship Only Empowering for Single Women? Evidence from France and Germany

Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Von Kraemers allé 1A and 1C, 752 37 Uppsala, Sweden
School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(4), 128;
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
PDF [1001 KB, uploaded 23 April 2019]


Entrepreneurship has been suggested as an alternative career model for women to gain economic empowerment while maintaining caring obligations. In this study, we investigate how gender and living situation affect entrepreneurs’ engagement in their business, home, well-being and business success in both France and Germany. Data from the European Social Survey were used, which included 470 French and 622 German self-employed people. For the French, women reported more working hours when living alone but there were no gender differences for the other living situations. For the Germans, there were no gender differences when the self-employed person lived alone; for the other living situations, men reported more working hours. Women reported working more household hours than men in both countries. There were no gender differences in life satisfaction for German self-employed people regardless of living situation; for the French, gender differences varied by living situation. Men reported more business success than women in both countries. Results suggest that self-employed people in Germany follow a traditional breadwinner model, whereas in France, self-employed women do more paid and unpaid work at the same time. In sum, entrepreneurship may only be empowering for self-employed women living alone. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-employment; female entrepreneurship; gender; France; Germany self-employment; female entrepreneurship; gender; France; Germany

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Eib, C.; Siegert, S. Is Female Entrepreneurship Only Empowering for Single Women? Evidence from France and Germany. Soc. Sci. 2019, 8, 128.

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