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Soc. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 3 (March 2024) – 56 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The ‘end demand’ approach to prostitution has been materializing in Europe through the anti-trafficking debate and has received increasing attention. It is well recognized that improving workers’ rights and increasing unionization are effective strategies for tackling trafficking. However, with regard to sexual exploitation, the focus is not on these strategies but instead on the abolition of the entire sex industry. Meanwhile, sex workers’ collectives have developed their own strategies on how to address criminalization, discrimination, violence, and exploitation with limited funding and without recognition of their work, experience, and expertise. This article presents findings on how sex workers’ rights organizations have sought to challenge the harmful impacts of the ‘end demand’ discourse and the criminalization of sex work in the name of anti-trafficking in Europe. View this paper
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12 pages, 677 KiB  
Article
Gender-Based Violence and Sexism among Young Couples
by Inés María Muñoz-Galiano, Gracia González-Gijón, Nazaret Martínez-Heredia and Erika González García
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030179 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
This study aims to characterise the prevalence of violence in intimate relationships among young university students and the internalisation of ambivalent sexism. The method used was a quantitative, descriptive study of Primary Education and Early Childhood Education groups in Andalusia, Spain. The final [...] Read more.
This study aims to characterise the prevalence of violence in intimate relationships among young university students and the internalisation of ambivalent sexism. The method used was a quantitative, descriptive study of Primary Education and Early Childhood Education groups in Andalusia, Spain. The final sample consisted of 848 participants. As a data collection tool, we used the VIREPA questionnaire and the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. The results show that the most frequent forms of violence in young couples’ relationships are emotional, followed by physical and sexual violence, and emotional violence, followed by physical and psychological violence, with sexual aggression being slightly lower. Concerning the variable sex, although the averages are very close, women have higher averages in terms of emotional, physical, and psychological abuse; personal devaluation; and sexual abuse, while men have higher averages in terms of social and economic control. In addition, low levels of sexism were found to be ambivalent in the sample, with the results being highly differentiated by gender, with men having higher arithmetic means than women. This led us to design educational strategies that avoid inequalities between men and women and that contribute to the eradication of sexism and, consequently, the perpetration of violence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
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24 pages, 614 KiB  
Article
Slow Work: The Mainstream Concept
by Maria João Silvestre, Sónia P. Gonçalves and Maria João Velez
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030178 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 649
Abstract
The global acceleration of the pace of life has led to an increase in working hours, time pressure, and intensification of work tasks in organisations, with consequences for the physical and psychological health of workers. This acceleration and its consequences make it especially [...] Read more.
The global acceleration of the pace of life has led to an increase in working hours, time pressure, and intensification of work tasks in organisations, with consequences for the physical and psychological health of workers. This acceleration and its consequences make it especially relevant to consider the principles of the slow movement and how they can be applied to the work context, focusing on the importance of slowing down the current pace of work and its implications for the sustainability of people and organisations. The key purpose of this study is to define the concept of slow work and understand its relationship with individual and organisational factors in order to extract the structuring dimensions, enabling its empirical study and practical application. Using grounded theory methodology, we conducted 12 semi-structured interviews with leaders of organisations from different sectors. Data analysis was performed using the MAXQDA programme. It was concluded that slow work is a way of working that respects the balance between individual rhythms and the objectives of the organisation, in favour of the sustainability of both parties, and that advocates qualitative goals, thinking time, individual recovery, purpose, and the humanisation of work. The main contribution is the conceptualisation of a construct that may be used in future studies, as well as in the development of organisational policies promoting the slow work culture. Full article
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12 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Election Systems for Overseas Constituency Representatives in Multiple Countries
by Shuji Yamauchi and Takashi Sekiyama
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030177 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Although electoral systems are a traditional focus in political science, limited research exists on the characteristics of overseas constituency representation. This study aims to quantitatively elucidate these characteristics through a comparative analysis of the election systems in eight countries. This study analyzes overseas [...] Read more.
Although electoral systems are a traditional focus in political science, limited research exists on the characteristics of overseas constituency representation. This study aims to quantitatively elucidate these characteristics through a comparative analysis of the election systems in eight countries. This study analyzes overseas constituency representative systems while focusing on key factors such as the number of eligible voters, seats, voter turnout, and representativeness (value of a single vote). Voter turnout in overseas districts varies significantly among these countries. Notably, Croatia and Romania exhibit exceptionally high voter turnouts in overseas districts. Common characteristics in high-turnout countries include a higher representativeness in overseas districts than the home country and a small proportion of overseas voters in the total electorate. This dynamic incentivizes overseas voters to participate in elections to reflect their minority opinions in national politics. Furthermore, it potentially leads to a higher voter turnout in overseas districts than in the home country. Full article
36 pages, 987 KiB  
Systematic Review
Professional Skills in Family Support: A Systematic Review
by Rita dos Santos, Anita Burgund Isakov, Cátia Martins, Ana Pereira Antunes, Nevenka Zegarac and Cristina Nunes
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030176 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Family support encompasses a wide variety of professionals, sectors, and intervention paradigms that make it difficult to systematize and standardize the skills needed by the family support workforce. The present study aimed to describe the relevant skills of professionals, organize the main skills [...] Read more.
Family support encompasses a wide variety of professionals, sectors, and intervention paradigms that make it difficult to systematize and standardize the skills needed by the family support workforce. The present study aimed to describe the relevant skills of professionals, organize the main skills into different categories, and contribute to the development of intervention standardization guidelines in the field of family support. So, a systematic literature review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. The search was carried out in five databases and included the analysis of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies, and all studies were qualitatively assessed. Of the initial 3334 articles identified, 59 studies were included, and four categories were identified: professionals’ qualities, essential skills common to all professions and contexts, specific knowledge, and theoretical approaches necessary for family support. Most of the studies were from the United Kingdom, qualitative, published in the last 10 years, used small samples, and included a specific group of professionals. The included studies did not specify whether some skills or characteristics were considered more effective in practice, and they had bias issues related to social desirability. The implications for family support practice are discussed, as well as the gaps to be covered in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
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14 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Childcare Balancing Policy in Japanese Corporations and Women’s Fertility Intention
by Yerong Zhao
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030175 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 483
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the childcare balancing policy and women’s fertility intention in Japanese corporations. This paper constructed two logistic regression models based on data from the 2010 Japanese Life Course Survey of Youth to analyze the correlation between [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the childcare balancing policy and women’s fertility intention in Japanese corporations. This paper constructed two logistic regression models based on data from the 2010 Japanese Life Course Survey of Youth to analyze the correlation between childcare balancing policies and women’s fertility intentions. The binary logistic regression method was used. The results showed that women’s fertility intention is negatively associated with the childcare balancing policy in Japanese corporations. This may be because the research object already had a child or children. The results indicate that the fertility intention of women who had a child or children was lower than those without children. This paper discovered that regular employees had higher fertility intentions than non-regular staff. This paper provides policymakers with valuable insights on establishing effective childcare policies to enhance women’s fertility intentions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
17 pages, 332 KiB  
Article
Adaptation of the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults to Turkish Culture
by Dudu Keskin and Timo Lajunen
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030174 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 513
Abstract
This study addresses the pervasive human experience of loneliness, shifting from a traditional unidimensional perspective to a more nuanced, multidimensional understanding. The Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (SELSA) was developed based on this conceptual shift, and this study focuses on adapting [...] Read more.
This study addresses the pervasive human experience of loneliness, shifting from a traditional unidimensional perspective to a more nuanced, multidimensional understanding. The Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (SELSA) was developed based on this conceptual shift, and this study focuses on adapting the scale to Turkish culture. Data from 197 Turkish adults (Mean age = 23 years, SD = 5.12) were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, revealing a three-factor structure consistent with the original scale. The factors, namely social loneliness, romantic loneliness, and family loneliness, explained 23.7%, 17.5%, and 10.4% of the variance, respectively. One item was excluded from the scale due to the lack of contribution to any factor. Clear factor analysis results and high Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients (0.92, 0.93, and 0.90 for social, romantic, and family loneliness, respectively, and 0.90 for the total scale) indicate strong internal consistency. The findings not only affirm the applicability of SELSA in the Turkish context but also contribute to a nuanced understanding of loneliness. The multidimensional approach, supported by robust psychometric properties, offers a valuable tool for comprehensively assessing and addressing diverse facets of loneliness in Turkish young adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
14 pages, 1622 KiB  
Article
Gender Diversity: An Opportunity for Socially Inclusive Human Resource Management Policies for Organizational Sustainability
by Caterina Galdiero, Cecilia Maltempo, Rosario Marrapodi and Marcello Martinez
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030173 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 584
Abstract
The context in which work is distributed, organized, and performed has certainly changed in recent decades. In recent years, shock events such as COVID-19 have contributed to the revision of human resource management (HRM) dynamics, which was previously for “standard work”. Overall, hybrid [...] Read more.
The context in which work is distributed, organized, and performed has certainly changed in recent decades. In recent years, shock events such as COVID-19 have contributed to the revision of human resource management (HRM) dynamics, which was previously for “standard work”. Overall, hybrid work is not a novelty but has significantly expanded, particularly in the post-COVID-19 period, creating new opportunities in human resource management, especially for female employees, who often manifest the need to reconcile family and work. The new post-pandemic situation has paved the way for gender sustainability processes in organizations by pushing towards a more general organizational sustainability. In fact, in recent decades, sustainability in companies has ceased to be merely environmental and has expanded its boundaries to a “sustainable” business model, whereby human resource management must also meet organizational sustainability criteria. The literature shows that women add value to organizations. Therefore, companies that take on the implementation of management policies with the aim of gender inclusion are committed to social and organizational sustainability, which leads to strategic ideas of competitive advantages. Starting from these considerations, the main purpose of this paper is to compare several strands of research on organizational sustainability and diversity management using an integrative literature review method that offers the opportunity to discover areas where further research is needed. This allows fields of study to be mapped. This paper, derived from a review, provides insights for line managers and upper management regarding pursuing sustainability goals within organizations’ boundaries. Limitations and potential future research directions are also discussed, contributing to the ongoing development of research on these subjects. Full article
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12 pages, 344 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity and Quality of Life among High School Teachers: A Closer Look
by Danijela Živković, Ljubica Milanović, Anđela Đošić, Ana-Maria Vulpe, Tijana Purenović-Ivanović, Milan Zelenović, Dragoș Ioan Tohănean, Saša Pantelić, Constantin Sufaru and Cristina Ioana Alexe
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030172 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Background: Understanding the relationship between teachers’ physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), which is impacted by work-related stress, could help develop guidelines for improvement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of physical activity on high school teachers’ [...] Read more.
Background: Understanding the relationship between teachers’ physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), which is impacted by work-related stress, could help develop guidelines for improvement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of physical activity on high school teachers’ quality of life and the differences in QoL and PA between male and female teachers. Methods: The sample consisted of 499 respondents (193 men and 306 women), all working in the educational system. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short form) was used for PA assessment, and the WHOQoL questionnaire to measure QoL. Results: Physical health and Psychological health domains were areas where male teachers scored better (p < 0.01, both), while female teachers had higher scores in Social relationships domain (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that PA affects Physical health: Sig. = 0.056; Psychological health: Sig. = 0.000; Social relationships: Sig. = 0.001; Environment: Sig. = 0.021 in men, and Physical health (Sig. = 0.009) and Psychological health (Sig. = 0.039) in women. Conclusions: The findings of this study allow us to conclude that, whereas female teachers’ PA primarily impacts their physical and psychological domain, male teachers’ PA has an impact on their overall QoL. Full article
13 pages, 248 KiB  
Essay
European Works Councils: Their Impact on the Europeanization of Industrial Relations in an Era of Market Globalism
by Theodore Koutroukis
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030171 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 717
Abstract
The European Works Council (EWC) Directive provides the establishment of a social partnership forum within Multinational Companies (MNCs). The directive gives employees the right to information and consultation with the supra-national group management. The aim of this concept paper is to contribute to [...] Read more.
The European Works Council (EWC) Directive provides the establishment of a social partnership forum within Multinational Companies (MNCs). The directive gives employees the right to information and consultation with the supra-national group management. The aim of this concept paper is to contribute to the debate on the Europeanization of Industrial Relations (IR) in the European Union. Specifically, it assesses the influence that EWCs, a novel institution within certain Euro-companies, have on the convergence of industrial relations among the member states. This critical topic can be evaluated from the standpoint of the current theory and its practical implications in order to draw the perspectives for a European system of IR both within MNCs and the rest of the companies. Our conclusions indicate that EWCs contribute to Europeanization in several aspects of employee relations, although this contribution has been limited to those issues that are wished for by the MNCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Political Economy in Europe)
15 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Using Inclusive Research Methods and the Housing Pathways Framework in Future Planning and Housing Research: A Pilot Study
by Irene Belperio, Fiona Rillotta, Tim Adam, Ruth Walker and Claire Hutchinson
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030170 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Housing and future planning have been key areas of interest in intellectual and development disabilities research for a number of decades. However, the voices of adults with intellectual disabilities are underrepresented in this area of research. Furthermore, the use of inclusive research methods [...] Read more.
Housing and future planning have been key areas of interest in intellectual and development disabilities research for a number of decades. However, the voices of adults with intellectual disabilities are underrepresented in this area of research. Furthermore, the use of inclusive research methods remains limited in the literature. This study sought to pilot the use of inclusive research approaches to investigate the viability of these methods and to begin to build an evidence base of inclusive research in this area of work. Inclusive data analysis and co-authorship approaches were used on a small qualitative dataset from a larger study investigating future planning and transitions out of the family home by adults with intellectual disabilities and their families in Australia. Three semi-structured interviews with adults with intellectual disabilities and family members regarding their housing preferences and planning were analysed using an inclusive data analysis approach following the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. These were then further analysed using a plain language version of the housing pathways framework. The results of the pilot study will be used to inform the inclusive research methods used for the remainder of the project dataset. Overall, the use of inclusive methods to pilot a conceptual model to better understand qualitative data was found to be feasible. Small adjustments to the process and accessibility to better support engagement with the research process are recommended. Lastly, greater investigation into co-authorship approaches and options is suggested as a fruitful avenue of inquiry for future research. Full article
9 pages, 247 KiB  
Perspective
Technology-Based Intimate Partner Violence Intervention Services for Generation Z Victims of Violence
by Satarupa Dasgupta and Emily Melvin
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030169 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The current article reviews the extant literature on technology’s role in service provision and advocacy for young adults who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The article looks at preferences and patterns of access and utilization of digitally mediated communication among young [...] Read more.
The current article reviews the extant literature on technology’s role in service provision and advocacy for young adults who are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The article looks at preferences and patterns of access and utilization of digitally mediated communication among young adults to explore optimal IPV services and mitigation strategies for providing crisis counseling to this demographic and offering support over time. An understanding of technology’s role in support provision can help to design best practices and offer recommendations that can best serve the needs of Generation Z victims of violence. Full article
22 pages, 9176 KiB  
Article
“It’s Like Having an Uncontrolled Situation”: Using Body Maps to Understand the Embodied Experiences of People with Hidradenitis Suppurativa, a Chronic Dermatological Condition
by Natalie Ingraham, Kelly Duong and Lena R. Hann
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030168 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory, and often debilitating skin condition that includes painful “flares” in the groin, genital, and underarms. (1) Background: Patients with HS have the highest reported mental health comorbidities among dermatological conditions. Qualitative social science research about HS [...] Read more.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory, and often debilitating skin condition that includes painful “flares” in the groin, genital, and underarms. (1) Background: Patients with HS have the highest reported mental health comorbidities among dermatological conditions. Qualitative social science research about HS is limited, so this study aimed to understand the lived experiences of people with HS through body mapping. Body mapping is a participatory research process where participants illustrate a drawing of their body with images, symbols, and words that represent their embodied experience. (2) Methods: This study recruited 30 participants from a previous survey about HS experiences. Participants selected from pre-made body silhouettes based on their body shape, illustrated a body map about their HS experience, then shared their body map during in-depth interviews. Interviews and body maps were analyzed with the same codebook created with inductive and deductive codes. (3) Results: The body map drawings yielded rich visual data and the mapping process helped participants express their HS experiences in unique ways that cannot always be captured with textual data alone. (4) Conclusions: This study adds to the limited social science literature about HS and introduces body mapping as a relevant qualitative method for exploring chronic dermatological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Health Conditions and Bodies: Methods, Meanings, and Medicine)
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17 pages, 483 KiB  
Article
Corrosive Comparisons and the Memory Politics of “Saming”: Threat and Opportunity in the Age of Apology
by Matt James
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030167 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
This article contributes to the interdisciplinary fields of memory and historical justice studies by analyzing one, particularly troublesome kind of competitive comparison that sometimes happens in memory politics in the so-called age of apology. The article calls this kind of competitive comparison, “saming”. [...] Read more.
This article contributes to the interdisciplinary fields of memory and historical justice studies by analyzing one, particularly troublesome kind of competitive comparison that sometimes happens in memory politics in the so-called age of apology. The article calls this kind of competitive comparison, “saming”. Saming involves the attempt, via far-fetched or otherwise wrongheaded comparison, to exploit the recognition of some well-known case of historical injustice. Further, saming involves pursuing this comparison in ways that both trivialize the original injustice and undermine the framework from which the recognition of that injustice derives. The article develops its arguments and analysis by studying Budapest’s House of Terror museum and two Canadian redress campaigns, which sought historical recognition for the wartime internments of persons of Italian and Ukrainian ancestry, respectively. Saming is a recurrent problem, ubiquitous and probably inevitable in memory politics because the recognition of historical injustice brings with it unavoidable and indeed often valuable incentives to comparison. Thus, the overall aim of this article is to analyze the threat of saming in order to better defend the cause of comparison in introspective collective remembrance. Full article
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21 pages, 1340 KiB  
Article
Remote Work, Gender Ideologies, and Fathers’ Participation in Childcare during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Daniel L. Carlson, Skye McPherson and Richard J. Petts
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030166 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 822
Abstract
During the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, remote work became the new reality for many fathers. Though time availability theory suggests that this newfound flexibility should lead to more domestic labor on the part of fathers, many were skeptical that fathers would [...] Read more.
During the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, remote work became the new reality for many fathers. Though time availability theory suggests that this newfound flexibility should lead to more domestic labor on the part of fathers, many were skeptical that fathers would step up to shoulder the load at home. Indeed, the findings are decidedly mixed on the association of fathers’ remote work with their performance of housework and childcare. Nonetheless, research has yet to consider how contextual factors, such as fathers’ gender ideologies and mothers’ employment, may condition these associations. Using data from Wave 1 of the Study on U.S. Parents’ Divisions of Labor During COVID-19 (SPDLC), we examine how gender ideology moderates the association between fathers’ remote work and their performance and share of childcare during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic in both sole-earner and dual-earner families. The results show, for sole-earning fathers and dual-earner fathers with egalitarian gender attitudes, that the frequency of remote work was positively associated with fathers performing more, and a greater share of, childcare during the pandemic. Yet, only dual-earner fathers with egalitarian gender attitudes performed an equal share of childcare in their families. These findings suggest that the pandemic provided structural opportunities for fathers, particularly egalitarian-minded fathers, to be the equally engaged parents they desired. Full article
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27 pages, 373 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Link between Masculine Perceptions, Violence, Social Media Influence, and Weapon Carrying and Use: A Qualitative Inquiry into Arab Adolescent Boys and Young Men in Israel
by Ibrahim Badarna and Anat Gesser-Edelsburg
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030165 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Within the Arab community of Israel, the influence of masculine perceptions, violence, the carrying of weapons, and their subsequent use are growing concerns that significantly impact public safety. The omnipresence of social media further complicates this narrative, potentially reshaping traditional notions and behaviors [...] Read more.
Within the Arab community of Israel, the influence of masculine perceptions, violence, the carrying of weapons, and their subsequent use are growing concerns that significantly impact public safety. The omnipresence of social media further complicates this narrative, potentially reshaping traditional notions and behaviors associated with masculinity. This study endeavors to delve deep into the relationships between masculinity, violence, and weapon carrying and use and the role that social media plays in shaping these dynamics among Arab adolescent boys and young men in Israel. By employing a qualitative constructivist lens, the research integrated content analysis, digital ethnography, and rhetorical semiotic analysis. The participants included 40 Israeli Arab Muslim and Christian adolescent boys and young men. A recurrent theme was the belief in “Maktub”, signifying preordained events, pointing to a profound cultural relationship with fatalistic views on violence. Participants’ backgrounds in relation to violence influenced their stance on weapon carrying. There was a prevalent mistrust towards law enforcement. Social media’s role was pronounced, with genre preferences acting as indicators of violent inclinations. Culturally sensitive interventions are imperative, and it is essential to construct an early childhood educational program that includes positive male role models while collaborating with epistemic authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
13 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Country-Level Environmental Performance: Investment, Education, and Research and Development
by Sandra Nelly Leyva-Hernández and Antonia Terán-Bustamante
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030164 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 779
Abstract
(1) Background: Environmental deterioration has increased in recent years and is a worldwide concern. This study aims to analyze the influence of the resources and capacities of countries on their environmental performance. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study using secondary data was carried out [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Environmental deterioration has increased in recent years and is a worldwide concern. This study aims to analyze the influence of the resources and capacities of countries on their environmental performance. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study using secondary data was carried out quantitatively. A linear regression analysis was carried out to determine significant factors in countries’ environmental performances. (3) Results: Education innovation and investment were associated with environmental performance; however, investment in a country did not affect the country’s performance. (4) Conclusions: The scope of the proposed model was limited to the variables and countries of the secondary data analyzed, so future research can replicate this study using primary data. According to the results, the education of citizens can lead them to be more aware of their environment and pressure governments to generate positive changes for it. Full article
12 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Access to Children’s Perspectives?
by Anna Busk Rasmussen and Christina Haandbæk Schmidt
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030163 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Within the field of early childhood education, the Nordic model is characterised as being child-centred and holistic, based on children’s participation, democracy, autonomy, and freedom. Despite a strong tradition of incorporating children’s perspectives, research has identified it as a democratic problem that children [...] Read more.
Within the field of early childhood education, the Nordic model is characterised as being child-centred and holistic, based on children’s participation, democracy, autonomy, and freedom. Despite a strong tradition of incorporating children’s perspectives, research has identified it as a democratic problem that children continue to occupy a non-privileged position in which their voices are often unheard or disregarded in many contexts. Similarly, there is a tendency to apply adult-led methods, such as interviews, which can hinder the openness to children’s diverse ways of communicating, which is not just through verbal expressions. In this article, we position ourselves within what we perceive as the second wave of research on child perspectives in which the research interest converges on exploring how children’s perspectives are connected with the contexts in which children participate. Drawing on agential realism and an empirical example from a daycare centre, we demonstrate how children’s perspectives emerge from and become entangled with pedagogues, ethics, spaces, materials and discourse. Thus, the question is not about gaining access to children’s perspectives, but rather to be concerned with the interactions wherein children’s perspectives can emerge. This involves a critical view of the structures and basic assumptions that manifest themselves in the daily life of daycare centres and which underlie, and can result in, a subordination of children and children’s perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Wellbeing and Children’s RightsA Nordic Perspective)
20 pages, 361 KiB  
Article
Inequalities in Academic Work during COVID-19: The Intersection of Gender, Class, and Individuals’ Life-Course Stage
by Anna Carreri, Manuela Naldini and Alessia Tuselli
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030162 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Research studies on academic work and the COVID-19 crisis have clearly shown that the pandemic crisis contributed to exacerbating pre-existing gender gaps. Although the research has been extensive in this regard, it has focused more on the widening of the “motherhood penalty”, while [...] Read more.
Research studies on academic work and the COVID-19 crisis have clearly shown that the pandemic crisis contributed to exacerbating pre-existing gender gaps. Although the research has been extensive in this regard, it has focused more on the widening of the “motherhood penalty”, while other groups of academics are blurred. Even more underinvestigated and not yet fully explained are the intersections between further axes of diversity, often because the research conducted during the pandemic was based on a small volume of in-depth data. By drawing on interview data from a wider national research project, this article aims to contribute to this debate by adopting an intersectional approach. In investigating daily working life and work–life balance during the pandemic of a highly heterogeneous sample of 127 Italian academics, this article sheds light on how gender combines with other axes of asymmetry, particularly class (precarious versus stable and prestigious career positions) and age (individuals’ life-course stage), to produce specific conditions of interrelated (dis)advantage for some academics. The analysis reveals three household and family life course types that embody the interlocking of gender, class, and age within a specific social location with unequal, and possibly long-term, consequences for the quality of working life, well-being, and careers of academics, living alone or with parents, couples without children or with grown-up children, and couples with young children and other family members in need of care. Full article
20 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Social Networks, Support Patterns, and Health Problems among the General Hungarian Population during the Last Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Ágnes Győri
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030161 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 818
Abstract
Numerous research works prove that social relationships and the support they provide have particular importance in maintaining both mental and physical health: they help to deal with stressful life situations, overcome diseases, and maintain health. It is also known that certain periods of [...] Read more.
Numerous research works prove that social relationships and the support they provide have particular importance in maintaining both mental and physical health: they help to deal with stressful life situations, overcome diseases, and maintain health. It is also known that certain periods of life and life events can be critical in terms of social support, as they involve the narrowing of possible sources of support, so the lack of a network of contacts and social support increases not only the risk of becoming lonely but also the occurrence or worsening of diseases. This study investigates the relationship between social network factors and support provided through networks and health problems, taking into account the perceived personal and general impact of COVID-19. The data came from a cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 5000 Hungarian participants was conducted during the dwindling period of the pandemic. We used a latent profile analysis to separate the different groups of respondents based on the support received from different sources of relationships, aiming at capturing the diversity of supported support combinations based on the type of relationships in the network, the form of support, and frequency. Multilevel regression was used to examine the impact of social connectivity factors, emerging patterns, and COVID-19-related perceived consequences on health conditions. Our results confirm that the “poorly supported network” plays a key role in the occurrence of chronic diseases and depression. It seems interesting, however, that the probability of poor physical and mental health was higher in the group of those receiving financial and in-kind support mainly from family compared to the group of those receiving support from multiple sources of relationships. The models also suggest that network integration plays a major role in maintaining mental and physical health during an epidemic crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Stratification and Inequality)
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24 pages, 410 KiB  
Article
Does Environmental Change Affect Migration Especially into the EU?
by Dina Moawad
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030160 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Environmental shock migration is a pressing phenomenon that became prominent with the continuous emergence of natural disasters and climatic shocks worldwide. In order to cope with these various disasters or shocks, people choose to migrate either internally, internationally, permanently, or temporarily; the paper [...] Read more.
Environmental shock migration is a pressing phenomenon that became prominent with the continuous emergence of natural disasters and climatic shocks worldwide. In order to cope with these various disasters or shocks, people choose to migrate either internally, internationally, permanently, or temporarily; the paper named this phenomenon “environmental shock migration”. For a holistic understanding, this paper analyzes the impact of environmental changes on migration and discusses the relevant consequences, specifically in the EU region. The paper demonstrates that natural disasters and climatic shocks as environmental changes lead to several forms of shock migration and differ depending upon the context of migration, the duration, the number of migrants, and the region. A comprehensive literature review will be provided to tackle the work of previous scholars and identify the gaps required to be studied in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Globalization and International Migration to the EU)
21 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
Identifying Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Income Poverty across Poverty Levels in Urban Mexico: A Model-Based Boosting Approach
by Juan Torres Munguía
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030159 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 989
Abstract
This paper aims to identify income-poverty risk factors in urban Mexican households. Special emphasis is paid to examine differences between female- and male-headed families. To this, a dataset with 45 theoretical factors at the individual/household, community, and regional levels, integrating information from nine [...] Read more.
This paper aims to identify income-poverty risk factors in urban Mexican households. Special emphasis is paid to examine differences between female- and male-headed families. To this, a dataset with 45 theoretical factors at the individual/household, community, and regional levels, integrating information from nine sources, is created. To these data, additive quantile models are estimated via the boosting algorithm. From a gender standpoint, the following main contributions come from this paper. First, educational lag is particularly relevant for female-headed households. Second, there is a gendered life cycle in the income trajectory for poor households with a head having a medium level of education. Third, some households, traditionally disregarded, are found to be even poorer: those lacking social connectedness, without credit cards, with an extended composition, in which the female head spends a large part of her time on housework, and families headed by young women with a medium level of education. Finally, communities and regions where families have a lower income-to-poverty ratio are characterized as having an unequal income distribution, lower human development, lower levels of women’s economic participation, poor quality of services, and lower gender-based violence levels in the public sphere but higher gender-based violence levels in the family context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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3 pages, 203 KiB  
Editorial
Editor’s Introduction: Violence, Victimization and Prevention
by Sónia Maria Martins Caridade and Maria Alzira Pimenta Dinis
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030158 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 675
Abstract
Violence is a complex, multifaceted, and multi-determined phenomenon (Dahlberg and Krug 2006) that victimizes the lives of many children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly on a daily basis [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Violence, Victimization and Prevention)
4 pages, 180 KiB  
Editorial
Introduction to the Special Issue “Selected Papers from 11th International Digital Storytelling Conference 2023: Radical Listening: Story Work for a Just Future”
by Bill Shewbridge, Brooke Hessler and Burcu Şimşek
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030157 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Digital storytelling (DS) is a term that has come to mean different things in different contexts [...] Full article
16 pages, 478 KiB  
Article
Young Muslim Perceptions of Their Socio-Educational Inclusion, Religiosity, and Discrimination in Spain: Identifying Risks for Understanding
by María Navarro-Granados and Verónica C. Cobano-Delgado Palma
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030156 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 646
Abstract
The Muslim population is one of the religious groups facing the greatest obstacles to full socio-educational inclusion in the West. These are particularly noticeable among young people in areas such as access to employment. The purpose of this study was to find out [...] Read more.
The Muslim population is one of the religious groups facing the greatest obstacles to full socio-educational inclusion in the West. These are particularly noticeable among young people in areas such as access to employment. The purpose of this study was to find out their own perceptions of their socio-educational inclusion, discrimination, and religiosity. An eminently quantitative methodology was used, with an ad hoc questionnaire administered to a representative sample of a total of 1157 Muslims aged between 18 and 24. The results show that a higher level of religiosity is not related to a lower sense of belonging to Spanish society and should no longer be considered an obstacle to the socio-educational inclusion of young Muslims in Spanish society. On the other hand, their responses show that there is a relationship with greater perceived discrimination, especially in access to employment. In particular, women wearing hijab are substantially vulnerable. Young people, and especially Muslim women, make up a vulnerable population that requires specific school-to-work transition policies to improve their inclusion in the Spanish labour market. This research contributes to an important reflection based on the opinions of young Muslims themselves about supporting better socio-educational inclusion in Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School-to-Work Transition of At-Risk Youth during Crisis and Distress)
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15 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
From Fathers to Fathers—Telephone-Based Peer Support: A Feasibility Study
by Ewa Andersson, Lisa Espinosa and Michael B. Wells
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030155 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Background: Men can struggle with adapting to their new roles as they transition into fatherhood. While social support has been shown to be effective at aiding this transition, little research has focused on the implementation of, and satisfaction with, telephone-based peer support for [...] Read more.
Background: Men can struggle with adapting to their new roles as they transition into fatherhood. While social support has been shown to be effective at aiding this transition, little research has focused on the implementation of, and satisfaction with, telephone-based peer support for new fathers. Aims: This qualitative study aimed to investigate the implementation of, and satisfaction with, a telephone-based peer support program for new fathers. Methods: A qualitative study with 13 interviews of first-time fathers and peers was analysed using content analysis, in accordance with Elo and Kyngäs. Individual interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide that lasted between 30–45 min. Results: Two themes emerged from the fathers’ interviews (n = 6): (1) conditions that affect the telephone support experience; and (2) the importance of support. The fathers appreciated the confirmation stories shared by their peers, as these stories served as valuable examples that they could adapt and incorporate into their own parenting approaches. Two themes emerged from the peer interviews (n = 7): (1) peers’ own role and experience; and (2) the Importance of listening to fathers. Peers felt appreciated and acted like role models for new fathers, helping them to adjust to parenting life. Study limitations: The results may not transfer to multi-time fathers. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide valuable insights into the potential benefits and challenges of implementing a telephone-based peer support program for first-time fathers, which could further inform similar interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
18 pages, 2836 KiB  
Article
Studying Disability: A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective on Requesting Accommodation in Higher Education
by Tone Ristad, Aud Elisabeth Witsø, Sissel Horghagen, Lisbeth Kvam and Jørn Østvik
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030154 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Including students with disabilities in higher education is a global political objective and is considered a human right. However, many students do not feel included and hesitate to ask for the help they need to succeed in their education. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Including students with disabilities in higher education is a global political objective and is considered a human right. However, many students do not feel included and hesitate to ask for the help they need to succeed in their education. This study aims to investigate the processes of requesting accommodation for students with disabilities in higher education from the perspectives of both students and support providers. Six co-creation workshops were held, with a total of 46 participants from various backgrounds relevant to exploring pathways for students with disabilities in higher education and into the workforce. The audio recordings of the workshops were analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach to identify and explore processes. Three interconnected processes were identified: determining whether to disclose, asking for accommodations, and studying disability. The analysis showed that these processes could be time-consuming and riddled with barriers, and they did not always result in granted accommodations. Some students ended up using their study time to research their disability and potential accommodations instead of studying their subject matter. To eliminate barriers and promote disclosure, universities should ensure a universally designed education and that staff have the necessary knowledge to assist students in obtaining accommodations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Practice to Support Students with Disabilities)
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9 pages, 218 KiB  
Essay
New Forms of Interaction in the Digital Age: The Use of the Telephone
by Angelo Romeo
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030153 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 772
Abstract
The objective of this article is to analyze how the digital space has become a ground for encounters, comparisons, and sometimes even clashes among individuals who increasingly inhabit the Internet, not just as a gateway to consume products, but as a context in [...] Read more.
The objective of this article is to analyze how the digital space has become a ground for encounters, comparisons, and sometimes even clashes among individuals who increasingly inhabit the Internet, not just as a gateway to consume products, but as a context in which to weave relationships that, in the era of the Metaverse, are no longer to be understood as opposed to face-to-face encounters but rather as a continuation that transcends space–time boundaries. The Internet has become a place where relationships can be formed in various ways, influencing daily life and individual as well as collective existence. This influence now extends across various realms, from recreational encounters to cultural exchanges, and from politics to social interactions. The focus of this article is to analyze relational transformations and consequently how each individual relates to the Internet, both within and outside digital circuits. A state-of-the-art review of digital studies primarily interested in issues related to identity, increasingly showcased on social media, aims to understand how relationships and interactions can be interpreted today. These interactions occur within the screens of devices, disrupting certain stages of each individual’s biographical experience. Knowledge often begins in digital contexts and does not necessarily translate into the “tangible” everyday life, to the extent that the term “Digital Society” no longer surprises but is part of routine language. The synergy between digital and physical spaces calls on the social sciences to carefully analyze the types of relationships we build and how we nurture them amid applications and platforms. Thus, this article explores what friendships and romantic relationships have become in this digital era. It delves into the role of individuals faced with this rapid influx of technology into contemporary society. What is the role of the person in navigating this technological excess? The article aims to shed light on these questions, emphasizing notions such as relationships, identity, complexity, and the individual. Full article
24 pages, 2827 KiB  
Article
When Women Ask, Does Curiosity Help?
by Alexandra Mislin, Ece Tuncel and Lucie Prewitt
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030152 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 921
Abstract
This research examines the potential social benefits of displaying curiosity during a negotiation. Past research has found women who ask directly in distributive agentic settings can suffer negative social consequences and obtain worse objective outcomes compared to men. In three experiments (N = [...] Read more.
This research examines the potential social benefits of displaying curiosity during a negotiation. Past research has found women who ask directly in distributive agentic settings can suffer negative social consequences and obtain worse objective outcomes compared to men. In three experiments (N = 600) using different negotiation contexts, we found men and women who approach negotiations with curiosity reap the same economic benefits of asking directly but without incurring a social cost. We also found that perceived warmth partially accounts for the positive effects of curiosity (vs. asking directly) on negotiators’ social outcomes. Finally, our results reveal women feel more comfortable conveying curiosity compared to using a direct approach in their negotiations. We discuss the implications of these findings in enhancing negotiation effectiveness for both women and men. Full article
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16 pages, 320 KiB  
Article
Newspaper Headlines and Intimate Partner Femicide in Portugal
by Ariana Correia and Sofia Neves
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030151 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
The media’s representation of intimate partner femicides has been contributing to addressing gender-based violence as a structural phenomenon. Aiming to understand which crime elements are valued and how they might contribute to victim blaming, the present study explores the portrayal of intimate partner [...] Read more.
The media’s representation of intimate partner femicides has been contributing to addressing gender-based violence as a structural phenomenon. Aiming to understand which crime elements are valued and how they might contribute to victim blaming, the present study explores the portrayal of intimate partner femicides in Portugal through the analysis of newspaper headlines. The core of the analysis comprises 853 newspaper headlines published between 2000 and 2017, which were subjected to a categorical content analysis. The results suggest two major trends that are aligned with the scope of the two newspapers analyzed. While some headlines offer informative perspectives on crime and its characteristics, the majority tend to sensationalize the narratives, potentially legitimizing violence against women. The results of this study enrich the social and academic debate on the media’s potential influence in preventing and combating gender-based violence. Moreover, by shedding light on the media’s representation of intimate partner femicides, the study reinforces the importance of a broader discussion on the role of journalism in fostering social change. Full article
20 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Cultural Awareness of Intersex in Malta: Invisibility, Stigma and Epistemic Injustice
by Claudia Bartolo Tabone, Fae Garland and Mitchell Travis
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030150 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
In 2015, Malta introduced ground-breaking legal reform designed to protect the bodily integrity of intersex infants in Malta. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with healthcare professionals, lawyers, policy-makers and advocates, this article considers the extent to which this reform has improved the cultural visibility [...] Read more.
In 2015, Malta introduced ground-breaking legal reform designed to protect the bodily integrity of intersex infants in Malta. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with healthcare professionals, lawyers, policy-makers and advocates, this article considers the extent to which this reform has improved the cultural visibility and recognition of intersex people in Malta. Engaging with literature on epistemic injustice, this article provides new evidence for a cultural silence around intersex bodies that operates not only at a level of public knowledge but also at the individual and institutional levels. Our findings relate to three categories of visibility: political, cultural and medical. While the political visibility of intersex was an important factor in the introduction and shape of law reform in Malta, our respondents felt that the legislation had had very little effect on public understandings and familiarity with intersex issues. Moreover, respondents felt that many intersex people would be unlikely to know that they were intersex due to the limited conceptual and critical resources available to them: issues such as stigma and shame further encourage the epistemic silencing of intersex issues. The lack of cultural and medical visibility has significantly limited both the intended and hoped-for effect of the legislation. The article considers the broader implications of these results beyond Malta for those seeking to use the law to improve the lived experiences of intersex people. Full article
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