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Soc. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 67 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this contribution, we explore the ways in which the coloniality of the French asylum system works to deny racialised women in exile access to welfare and social services. We highlight the ways in which the State not only neglects these women, but actively contributes to violence through its racialised neo-liberal policies. The withdrawal of access to welfare and social services, including housing, welfare payments or health services, all form a part of this system of structural violence which leads to increasing levels of harm. Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Paris region, our article emphasises that the structural production of sexual and gendered violence against racialised exiled women illustrates the coloniality of the asylum system and more broadly of the migration regime, which manifests itself in policies of exclusion, neglect and endangerment—including death. View this paper
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Article
“Just Be Careful, Since Social Media Is Really Not as Safe as It’s Being Portrayed”: Adolescent Views on Adult Support for Safer Social Media Use
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100492 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Social media is an integral part of the lives of adolescents, but they are also closed arenas concealed from the next of kin and are resistant to parental mediation. Consequently, this study aims to investigate how adolescents reflect on the safe use of [...] Read more.
Social media is an integral part of the lives of adolescents, but they are also closed arenas concealed from the next of kin and are resistant to parental mediation. Consequently, this study aims to investigate how adolescents reflect on the safe use of social media and the conversations they have with their parents. The present study used data from 8 focus group interviews with adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years in Norway. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation—an inductive thematic cross-case analysis. The results showed three themes: (1) next of kin encourage caution, (2) safety is created through mutual learning, and (3) adolescents expect parental mediation. The present study has important implications for policymakers, media educators, and education institutions and its findings will enable better preparation and targeting of curricula and education from basic to secondary schools on a national level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
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Article
Building Consensus during Racially Divisive Times: Parents Speak Out about the Twin Pandemics of COVID-19 and Systemic Racism
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100491 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 286
Abstract
This paper utilizes narrative inquiry to examine the effect of COVID-19 on political resistance, focusing on education as a key site. Based on survey and interview data the paper considers parents’ perspectives about the impacts of COVID-19 and racial inequalities in their children’s [...] Read more.
This paper utilizes narrative inquiry to examine the effect of COVID-19 on political resistance, focusing on education as a key site. Based on survey and interview data the paper considers parents’ perspectives about the impacts of COVID-19 and racial inequalities in their children’s schooling. Two narrative types are constructed and analyzed: consensus narratives and parenting narratives that refute an overarching, manufactured political narrative in the United States of “divisiveness” about race and education, while also identifying the layers and complexities of individual parents’ everyday lives raising and educating children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Narratives of Resistance in Everyday Lives and the Covid Crisis)
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Article
Community-Based Interventions for the Prevention and Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Systematic Review
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100490 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 543
Abstract
We reviewed the evidence on community-based interventions for the prevention and control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Community initiatives tailored towards awareness and mobilisation are regarded as a priority area in the Neglected Tropical Disease Roadmap 2021–2030 by the World Health Organization. We searched [...] Read more.
We reviewed the evidence on community-based interventions for the prevention and control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Community initiatives tailored towards awareness and mobilisation are regarded as a priority area in the Neglected Tropical Disease Roadmap 2021–2030 by the World Health Organization. We searched nine electronic databases for intervention-based studies. Two independent reviewers screened and assessed the articles for methodological quality using predefined criteria. We conducted a meta-analysis using a random effects model, along with narrative synthesis. Thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion, of which 12 were quantitative studies (quasi-experimental with control group and pre-post interventions) and one qualitative study. All articles reported on health education interventions aimed at changing people’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in relation to CL. Participant groups included students, mothers, housewives, volunteer health workers, and residents in general. An increased score was recorded for all outcomes across all interventions: knowledge (SMD: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.23, 2.47), attitudes (SMD: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.56, 2.15), and practices (SMD: 1.73, 95% CI: 0.99, 2.47). Whilst our findings show that educational interventions improved people’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices about CL, we argue that this approach is not sufficient for the prevention and control of this disease. Knowledge does not always translate into action, particularly where other structural barriers exist. Therefore, we recommend the design of more innovative community-based interventions with a broader focus (e.g., stigma, financial barriers, and healthcare access). Full article
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Article
Literature Review on Human Resource Churning—Theoretical Framework, Costs and Proposed Solutions
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100489 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 369
Abstract
As a result of the complexity and multiplicity of definitions of the concept of human resource churning, to guide this entire research, the cost resulting from replacements was taken as a premise. Although churning is related to turnover, there are differences, turnover has [...] Read more.
As a result of the complexity and multiplicity of definitions of the concept of human resource churning, to guide this entire research, the cost resulting from replacements was taken as a premise. Although churning is related to turnover, there are differences, turnover has as its focus the turnover of workers and churning is also related to the same approach, but this concept has as its focus the costs associated with the replacements of workers derived from voluntary departures, i.e., churning is only related to the costs of hiring from replacements. Despite the complexity and multiplicity of definitions of the concept of churning, to guide the present research, we chose to adopt as our premise the costs resulting from the voluntary exits of workers, that is, the relationship between resulting costs associated with employee substitutions. The present investigation intended to identify the causes of churning through the identification of its main dimensions. This theoretical research resorted to the following methodology: a literature review and an empirical study review that approached the subject of the churning of human resources. The resulting outcome enabled us to identify how these dimensions had an influence on the management of human resources regarding the mitigation of the occurrence of churning and the application of strategic measures to retain workers. In this regard, we have identified as main dimensions the work environment; leadership; recognition; schedule flexibility; wage; career progression, responsibility, and retention of human resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
Article
Texas in Transition: Considering the Production of Grapes, Wine, and Place
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100488 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Given the state’s growing prominence in the United States wine industry, paired with its relative obscurity, we explore the cultural and environmental transformation of the state of Texas from the perspective of the b(l)ooming wine industry. Using a qualitative, narrative approach, focused on [...] Read more.
Given the state’s growing prominence in the United States wine industry, paired with its relative obscurity, we explore the cultural and environmental transformation of the state of Texas from the perspective of the b(l)ooming wine industry. Using a qualitative, narrative approach, focused on the two largest and most productive appellations in the state, we form a framework for understanding the historical and contemporary context for wine in Texas. Through participant observation and targeted interviews with growers, winemakers, and other wine industry insiders, we uncover how wine has become a major part of the regional identity of the Texas Hill Country and High Plains. We find that, even though the best wines made in Texas are made from lesser known and harder to market varietals, Texans have embraced the wine (culture) produced in their state. Though, as elsewhere, the industry in Texas is complex and multifaceted, it is still evolving, and industry actors are focusing on making a high quality, tasty product in order to compete with other wine industry giants. Although growers in the Hill Country and High Plains face various challenges, these circumstances demand creativity. However, the challenging circumstances and accompanying creativity are precisely what drive the unique tastes of Texas wines, a reality the Texas wine industry has begun to embrace. Full article
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Article
Parents’ and Teachers’ Expectations of School Social Workers
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100487 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 399
Abstract
In parallel with research focusing on the effectiveness of students and teachers, the content and impact of school social work have come to the forefront of international research discourses. In the Hungarian public education system, teachers had previously carried out social assistance tasks, [...] Read more.
In parallel with research focusing on the effectiveness of students and teachers, the content and impact of school social work have come to the forefront of international research discourses. In the Hungarian public education system, teachers had previously carried out social assistance tasks, but in September 2018, an external model of kindergarten and school social assistance activities was introduced, giving structure to the already existing work. No empirical studies have been performed on the results of implementation so far. Regarding this topic, our research question is, in what areas do parents and teachers expect the most from school social workers? To get answers, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 school social workers. During the analyses, we focused on the relationships established between parents and teachers, and also analysed partners’ expectations. One of the most important results of the research is that, with social workers in mind, we created systematised parent and pedagogical types. We compared the services required by parents and teachers with the social assistance reform concept. We point out that while the Social Assistance Regulation empowers these professionals primarily for preventive, group and community activities, parents and teachers alike expect individual-focused assistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Article
The Impact of Strong Cultures on Organisational Performance in Public Organisations: The Case of the Greek Public Administration
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100486 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Existing literature suggests that a strong culture is essential to the success of an organisation. However, some researchers have since disputed this claim, arguing that while some strong cultures lead to success, others fail. Examining several examples over time, the so-called “case for [...] Read more.
Existing literature suggests that a strong culture is essential to the success of an organisation. However, some researchers have since disputed this claim, arguing that while some strong cultures lead to success, others fail. Examining several examples over time, the so-called “case for a strong culture” presents significant weaknesses. The present study, based on the Competing Values Model, examines the effects of a culture’s strength on the organisational performance in the public sector. A sample of 92 departments of Greek public organisations was examined, of which a total of 424 people responded to an online questionnaire. The participating organisations and their departments range in size, in terms of the number of their staff, from 15 to 54 members, and come from different segments of the public administration. The results showed that there is no relationship between culture’s strength and an organisation’s performance and that strong cultures do not have a significant impact on organisational performance in the public sector. The main objective of this research is to enrich the existing knowledge on the relationship between culture and performance, especially in the area of the public sector, since existing studies mainly focus on culture comparisons between large companies using mainly small samples. This study highlights the importance of culture given the chronic problems of Greek public administration to create public value and to be innovative and effective. The results are also of particular importance for the post-pandemic period indicating the need for major changes and reforms in public administration. Full article
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Article
Impact of Paternal Leadership on Employee Retention during COVID-19: Financial Crunch or Financial Gain
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100485 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
The leadership style that is most appropriate for the given circumstance will determine whether or not a leader is successful. It means what great leaders should do while working with a diverse workforce. They should be emotionally intelligent in order to understand their [...] Read more.
The leadership style that is most appropriate for the given circumstance will determine whether or not a leader is successful. It means what great leaders should do while working with a diverse workforce. They should be emotionally intelligent in order to understand their team members and modify their leadership style in order to achieve the best out of them. Employee engagement in the workplace is crucial for firms, but different factors can keep employees motivated. Work engagement activities, particularly those supported by the human resource department, have typically been observed as the primary factors that motivate employees. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a number of adjustments. The primary goal of this study is to examine how virtual human resource practices and paternal leadership affected employee retention in COVID-19, with the function of work engagement activities as a mediator. The data were gathered from 250 Portuguese Professors who were instructing undergraduate students using a survey instrument. Smart-PLS partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to assess the study’s hypotheses. It has been discovered that paternalistic leadership, also known as a resource provider with a benevolent attitude, has a direct impact on job performance and employee intention to leave the job, but during a pandemic, where the role of the government in supporting their nationals was not as significant in Portugal as it could be, people also faced their leaders of organizations as opportunists. Not all, but most paternal organizations took financial decisions to safeguard their business and were not people-oriented. Now the dignity of the paternal leader on the canvas of leadership is fading. This neo-normal approach will contribute to the literature on paternal leadership. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Editorial
Introduction to Special Issue “Parenting in the 21st Century”
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100484 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 360
Abstract
The nature of parenting and parent–child relationships is often dramatically affected by the historical period in which one raises children [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
Article
Inclusive Research and Intellectual Disabilities: Moving Forward on a Road Less Well-Travelled
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100483 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 327
Abstract
In reflecting on the title of the special issue: Inclusive Research: A road less or more well-travelled, this paper reviews the strengths of inclusive research that have augmented the global knowledge about the lives of people with intellectual disabilities across the lifespan. The [...] Read more.
In reflecting on the title of the special issue: Inclusive Research: A road less or more well-travelled, this paper reviews the strengths of inclusive research that have augmented the global knowledge about the lives of people with intellectual disabilities across the lifespan. The successes of inclusive research are outlined with the respective ongoing individual challenges discussed. Authors will draw upon their own experiences of inclusive research, together with the seminal and current literature, as well as the dialogue between them. The conclusions of the article are in the form of recommendations aimed at increasing the traffic on the road of inclusive research through: 1. expanding its purpose and parameters across all forms of disability research; 2. developing systems for sustaining inclusive research as a funded model; 3. creating capacity to enable people with intellectual disabilities to be employed as researchers directing research projects; and 4. establishing bridges and crossroads with policy and practice through its findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Research: Is the Road More or Less Well Travelled?)
Article
Subjective Well-Being and Future Orientation of NEETs: Evidence from the Italian Sample of the European Social Survey
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100482 - 17 Oct 2022
Viewed by 490
Abstract
The acronym ‘NEET’ includes adolescents and young people aged 15–34 years not engaged in education, employment or training programs. According to recent studies, NEET represents a high-risk category to suffer from lower well-being and mental health problems. Following a life course approach, this [...] Read more.
The acronym ‘NEET’ includes adolescents and young people aged 15–34 years not engaged in education, employment or training programs. According to recent studies, NEET represents a high-risk category to suffer from lower well-being and mental health problems. Following a life course approach, this study examined the self-reported subjective well-being and the future orientation of NEETs. To do this, the study used the latest European Social Survey data (Round 9—2018), limiting our analysis to Italian respondents aged 15–34 years. The final sample included 695 participants. Descriptive analysis and Student’s t-test were performed to compare the subjective well-being and the future orientation of NEETs with those of non-NEET young adults. We hypothesize lower subjective well-beings in the NEET group and more difficulties in future planning than in the non-NEET group. Then, a mediation path model was carried out to study the relationship between employment condition (non-NEET/NEET) and subjective well-being through future orientation. The path model showed the mediator role of future orientation. Results indicated that future orientation plays a role in mitigating the effect of the unemployment condition on well-being. Starting from these findings, practical implications regarding career guidance interventions are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Article
University Teachers’ Digital Competence: A Case Study from Portugal
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100481 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
It has become increasingly important to train for an educational culture that makes use of digital technology to enhance its practices. Frameworks such as DigCompEdu enable identification of weaknesses and areas which require more training. This paper presents the results of a case [...] Read more.
It has become increasingly important to train for an educational culture that makes use of digital technology to enhance its practices. Frameworks such as DigCompEdu enable identification of weaknesses and areas which require more training. This paper presents the results of a case study with 249 participants from a Portuguese University examining differences in the digital competence of teachers according to gender, age, faculty and experience. Based on the data obtained, it was found that there were no significant differences and that it was, therefore, more important to consider training for digital empowerment according to the different areas of the DigCompEdu framework and to address weaknesses found in each of these areas. Full article
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Article
Assessing Türkiye’s Prospective Involvement in the Arctic Region: A Qualitative Inquiry from Energy and Environmental Perspectives
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100480 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Recent developments in the Arctic region, mainly marked by climate change, have caused the region to receive increasing attention from regional and non-regional actors, mainly due to emerging energy-related opportunities and environmental concerns. The main reason for non-regional stakeholders to become involved in [...] Read more.
Recent developments in the Arctic region, mainly marked by climate change, have caused the region to receive increasing attention from regional and non-regional actors, mainly due to emerging energy-related opportunities and environmental concerns. The main reason for non-regional stakeholders to become involved in the Arctic region to pursue their interests is to obtain the observer status in the Arctic Council. Accordingly, this manuscript analyzes the long-term perspective of Türkiye’s involvement in the Arctic region as a non-regional actor and reveals a set of enablers and disablers pertaining to energy and environmental domains. For this purpose, in-depth interviews with experts from Türkiye, with Arctic Council members, or with observer countries are conducted. Results of the analysis are also utilized to provide insights regarding countries with similar profiles to Türkiye, i.e., middle-power and developing countries that are geographically distant from the Arctic region. The results highlight energy security, hydrocarbon reserves, and climate change as significant factors for countries such as Türkiye. Scientific, private sector, or intergovernmental cooperation with regional actors to encourage global action and environmental initiatives are the main enablers. Challenges in the extraction and sharing of energy resources, high costs and high technology requirements of energy exploration and extraction activities, increasing human activity, and damages to the Arctic ecosystem are identified as significant disablers. Full article
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Article
Putting Values to the Test in Times of Pandemic
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100479 - 15 Oct 2022
Viewed by 343
Abstract
As everyday security becomes more important in society, reflection on scientific evidence obtained in relation to other areas of knowledge is required. The purpose of the article was to explore and analyze social perceptions of values in crisis situations. A correlational hypothesis is [...] Read more.
As everyday security becomes more important in society, reflection on scientific evidence obtained in relation to other areas of knowledge is required. The purpose of the article was to explore and analyze social perceptions of values in crisis situations. A correlational hypothesis is proposed, according to which it is demonstrated that, as societies’ levels of economic and personal security vary, so do their perceptions of their values and the importance they assign to them. The methodology used was quantitative and correlational, with data obtained through online surveys distributed on social media platforms from June to October 2020, with the participation of 502 adults aged 18 and over. The main results showed that respect was perceived as the most necessary value to face the crisis by women and men and across age groups, while happiness and cultural diversity were the least important in relation to gender and age variables. Schools and households appeared to be the places identified as the most significant foci of values education, not the religious communities to which the participants belonged. However, the results related to religious affiliation revealed that the younger generation (18–30-year-olds), which represented one third of the respondents, did not have any religious beliefs. This may limit the applicability of this conclusion. Findings from this study contribute to the understanding of value-system changes during crises; therefore, further interdisciplinary study of value systems and incidences of values in the Panamanian context are recommended. Full article
Article
Quantifying for Qualifying: A Framework for Assessing Gender Equality in Higher Education Institutions
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100478 - 14 Oct 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
The objective of this study is to present the development of a framework for assessing gender inequality in higher education institutions (HEIs) which reveals how this academic environment is progressing in terms of gender balance. It proposes a multi-dimension-based index comprised by five [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to present the development of a framework for assessing gender inequality in higher education institutions (HEIs) which reveals how this academic environment is progressing in terms of gender balance. It proposes a multi-dimension-based index comprised by five dimensions—Empowerment, Education, Health, Violence, and Time. The mathematical model used enables the user to assign a weight value to each dimension, customizing the results according to the institution addressed. The paper is based on a post-doctoral research project which analyzed six globally recognized indexes (Gender Inequality Index; Global Gender Gap Index; Women, Business, and Law Index; Gender Equality Index; Social Institutions Global Index; Women Empowerment Principles) to construct a new framework for gender inequality evaluation tailored for HEIs. It used a Laplace–Gauss-based scale. The research included an experiment of concrete application to two instiutions, one in Europe and the other in South America. While the first one had a Gender Equality Plan, the second had not. The analysis was successfully conducted in both institutions. The two institutions presented general results above 60%. These results need to be read in the specific context of each university. The Gender Equality in Higher Education Institutions Index (GEHEI) provides a user-friendly way of checking the existence of gender inequality, summarized into a single number but able to be detailed in several levels and to provide insight into progression over time. The handling of the GEHEI tool is also very straightforward. The proposal is designed to be used in different HEIs; it is recommended that researchers customize the weights of the dimensions according to their relevance in the specific organization. This paper provides a new methodological model to measure gender inequality in HEIs based on easy-to-obtain data, distinguishing itself from global indexes by its ease of application and interpretation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Directions in Gender Research)
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Article
Social Services Management in the Context of Ethnic Roma Issues in the Czech Republic with a Focus on Education for Roma Children
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100477 - 14 Oct 2022
Viewed by 323
Abstract
According to qualified estimates by sociologists, the Czech national census and governmental bodies in the EU, as many as 350,000 ethnic Roma people live in the Czech Republic. Yet, only a fraction of the Roma population has received higher education and are achieving [...] Read more.
According to qualified estimates by sociologists, the Czech national census and governmental bodies in the EU, as many as 350,000 ethnic Roma people live in the Czech Republic. Yet, only a fraction of the Roma population has received higher education and are achieving careers within and not alongside the majority society. Some believe that a more inclusive and integrative approach in education will facilitate long-term community work and better removal of prejudices. This represents quite a force that could appreciably affect the political landscape. Unfortunately, we run into the disunity of the Roma people among themselves, which brings more challenges to the forefront rather than solutions to the current status quo. This should change in the future. The current government concept for this purpose supports the development of Roma culture and education. This overview study should bring more arguments to the table regarding the need for Czech Romani/Roma intervention in education and social affairs. This overview article gives an insight into current Czech Roma/Romani education and social service-related issues. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Urban Neighbourhoods’ Vulnerability through an Integrated Vulnerability Index (IVI): Evidence from Barcelona, Spain
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100476 - 14 Oct 2022
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Urban inequality, specifically in vulnerable areas, has been a study topic from the earliest days of sociology to the present. This study’s objective is to discuss the scope and limitation of the concept of urban vulnerability, whilst generating an index that detects urban [...] Read more.
Urban inequality, specifically in vulnerable areas, has been a study topic from the earliest days of sociology to the present. This study’s objective is to discuss the scope and limitation of the concept of urban vulnerability, whilst generating an index that detects urban vulnerability in all its dimensions. A factor analysis of the main components was conducted resulting in the formation of four partial indices related to the social class, gentrification, social and employment, and physical & architectural dimensions of urban vulnerability, whilst their sums conform an integrated vulnerability index. This index is applied to the city of Barcelona, allowing its neighbourhoods to be positioned on a vulnerability continuum. Despite being applied in this city, the integrated vulnerability index emerges with the purpose of being replicated to other urban spaces. The mapping of these results using geographic information systems suggests a robust index that allows early identification of problematics, while also providing clues for policy intervention. Full article
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Article
The Emotional Dimension of the Spanish Far Right and Its Effects on Satisfaction with Democracy
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100475 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 468
Abstract
The recent rise of the far right in Spain highlights the importance of analysing the elements that have contributed to VOX’s success and the party’s ascent to the third political power in the country after the general election held in November 2019. In [...] Read more.
The recent rise of the far right in Spain highlights the importance of analysing the elements that have contributed to VOX’s success and the party’s ascent to the third political power in the country after the general election held in November 2019. In order to explain the electoral support for VOX, in this study we adopt an emotional perspective, giving emotions a fundamental role alongside the traditional variables involved in the far-right vote. After describing the emotional regime of VOX voters, we observe the relationship between these voters’ emotions towards political actors and the levels of satisfaction with democracy. Subsequently, we try to identify the determining elements of the vote for VOX through a multivariate analysis. Finally, after stating that hope in Santiago Abascal is one of the main variables that explain voters’ support for VOX, we analyse its constituent elements. Our findings reveal that hope for VOX’s leader is not made up of structural elements but cultural elements, citizens’ ratings of political leaders and ideological and identity questions. Full article
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Article
Management and Regulation of Drone Operation in Urban Environment: A Case Study
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100474 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 622
Abstract
With the exponential growth of numerous drone operations ranging from infrastructure monitoring to even package delivery services, the laws and privacy regarding the use of drones in the urban planning context play an essential role in future smart cities. This study provides a [...] Read more.
With the exponential growth of numerous drone operations ranging from infrastructure monitoring to even package delivery services, the laws and privacy regarding the use of drones in the urban planning context play an essential role in future smart cities. This study provides a comprehensive survey of the regulation of drone application and drone management systems, including a comparison of existing rules, management methods, and guidelines in drone operation to guarantee the safety and security of people, property, and environment. Evaluating existing regulations and laws practiced worldwide will assist in designing drone management and regulation. In Vietnam, the current rules can manage and regulate general guidelines of drone operations based on prohibited, restricted, and controlled areas within the urban context. The legislation, however, is unclear as to how it regulates smaller civilian unmanned aircraft used in the country. In the legal aspect, the potential consequences consist of the inefficiency of compensation responsibility, the violation of drone regulations, and information insecurity. Full article
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Article
Positive and Negative Affects and Cultural Attitudes among Representatives of the Host Population and Second-Generation Migrants in Russia and Kazakhstan
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100473 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The experience of experiencing a new culture for first-generation migrants is usually quite an intense occurrence, one that has become the subject of numerous studies. However, the question of what happens later, at the level of the second and subsequent generations, is still [...] Read more.
The experience of experiencing a new culture for first-generation migrants is usually quite an intense occurrence, one that has become the subject of numerous studies. However, the question of what happens later, at the level of the second and subsequent generations, is still under-investigated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the predictors of positive and negative affect of the second generation of migrants and representatives of the host (indigenous) population in Kazakhstan and Russia. The study involved 300 people selected on the basis of the principle of proportionality (quota selection). Survey methods and mathematical methods of data processing, including SEM (structural equation modeling), were used. The research model included comparative analysis of averages, regression analysis, and path analysis. The results testified in favor of the similarity of positive and negative affect indicators and their ratios in representatives of the host community and the second generation of migrants. Cultural attitudes of the host community representatives were characterized by higher certainty and rigidity than those of the representatives of the second generation of migrants. As a result of structural modeling, it was found that 20% of the positive affect dispersion in the representatives of the host community and 17% in the representatives of the second generation of migrants were conditioned by values, identity, and cultural attitudes. Positive affect in the representatives of the host community was associated with the values of self-overcoming, ethno-nihilism-based identity, and participation in cultural life of other peoples. Positive affect in representatives of the second generation of migrants was associated with the values of openness, attitude towards changing one’s ethnic identity, positive attitude towards cultural borrowings, and a tendency to observe the traditions of one’s ethnic group. Proposals have been formulated that contribute to reducing the cultural disunity of second-generation migrants and the host population. Full article
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Article
The Power of Arts in Old Age: Implications for Social Workers
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100472 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 318
Abstract
This article attempts to bridge various forms of arts and social work interventions through an exploration of how arts can fit within the social work context and have a positive impact on clients’ lives. The focus of the article is on the older [...] Read more.
This article attempts to bridge various forms of arts and social work interventions through an exploration of how arts can fit within the social work context and have a positive impact on clients’ lives. The focus of the article is on the older adults, a population group that is considered as a vulnerable, from the social and health perspectives. The objective of the study was to examine whether arts have a positive impact on older adults or not. By examining the impact of various kinds of arts on the quality of life of older adults, this article aims to strengthen the idea of using alternative approaches in social work interventions with older adults. It also suggests the idea of introducing social work courses within the curriculum that combine social work and arts. Through a pen-and-paper, closed-ended questionnaire, 179 Greek Cypriots over the age of 65 were surveyed in order to measure the power that participation in art activities may have on their lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
Review
Developing Process for Selecting Research Techniques in Urban Planning and Urban Design with a PRISMA-Compliant Review
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100471 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Choosing the proper research methods can pose a challenge for novice urban planners and designers. This study aimed to develop a more effective process for assisting urban planners and designers in selecting appropriate research techniques. The study used bibliometrics, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and [...] Read more.
Choosing the proper research methods can pose a challenge for novice urban planners and designers. This study aimed to develop a more effective process for assisting urban planners and designers in selecting appropriate research techniques. The study used bibliometrics, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and storytelling techniques as examples of urban planning and urban design research techniques. The results of this study provide techniques and procedures that can help urban planners and designers to conduct research reviews and follow the previous documented works published in the field. By utilizing suggested techniques and procedures, conclusive conclusions in urban planning and design research can be formed on the basis of compelling evidence. This study recommends developing a further innovative research methodology based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses by improving documentation and dissemination of research reviews. Full article
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Article
(Re)inspiring Narratives of Resistance: COVID-19, Racisms and Narratives of Hope
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100470 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 325
Abstract
In 2020, COVID-19 took many people by surprise, as did the intercontinental waves of protest triggered by the casual racist murder of George Floyd by a US policeman. The years of 2020 and 2021 will undoubtedly be remembered for massive, unexpected disruptions that [...] Read more.
In 2020, COVID-19 took many people by surprise, as did the intercontinental waves of protest triggered by the casual racist murder of George Floyd by a US policeman. The years of 2020 and 2021 will undoubtedly be remembered for massive, unexpected disruptions that require new social normalities to be negotiated. These social disruptions were triggered by unexpected viral pandemics and viral video footage. Yet they built on already existing, entrenched inequities marked by the intersections of racialisation/ethnicisation, social class and gender. It was common, in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, for politicians and commentators to espouse a narrative that COVID-19 “does not discriminate”. This is, of course, true. However, the research analyses that followed showed that both COVID-19, and the measures taken to arrest it, exacerbated already existing social inequalities. This paper draws on two narratives of the racialized impact of COVID-19 to examine the ways in which the authors mobilise intertextual narratives to protest against racism and call for resistance to the racisms they identify. The paper argues that, while the authors do not overtly position themselves as calling for change, their narratives are crafted in ways that resist current constructions of their racialized or religious groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Narratives of Resistance in Everyday Lives and the Covid Crisis)
Article
Economic Reformism vs Sociocultural Conservativism: Parties’ Programmes, Voters’ Attitudes and Territorial Features in the UK General Elections 2019
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100469 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 317
Abstract
This study explored the determinants of the massive vote shift that characterised the UK’s 2019 elections. To do so, this study firstly investigated opinions expressed by pro-Labour social groups about the hot issues of the political campaign; secondly, it conducted a cross-constituency analysis [...] Read more.
This study explored the determinants of the massive vote shift that characterised the UK’s 2019 elections. To do so, this study firstly investigated opinions expressed by pro-Labour social groups about the hot issues of the political campaign; secondly, it conducted a cross-constituency analysis on the 2019 vote. The present findings reveal that the issues emphasised by the Conservative manifesto tallied with the opinions of traditional left-wing social groups. The cross-constituency statistical analysis confirmed this point and found a significant association between Labour’s losses and the territorial distribution of the abovementioned social groups. These findings suggest that the crucial aspect of the vote shift was the Conservatives’ appeal to the sociocultural conservativism of part of Labour’s traditional voters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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Article
Calculation of Costs Related to Death by Suicide in Finland
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100468 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 400
Abstract
There are relatively few calculations of the costs related to suicides. The aim was to produce a monetary estimate of the costs incurred as a result of suicides. The costs were divided into three categories: (1) loss of labor input, (2) costs directly [...] Read more.
There are relatively few calculations of the costs related to suicides. The aim was to produce a monetary estimate of the costs incurred as a result of suicides. The costs were divided into three categories: (1) loss of labor input, (2) costs directly following a suicide, and (3) costs associated with family members. In our two sample cases, the costs related to suicides were from EUR 309,020 to EUR 456,279. By putting the monetary costs of suicide prevention intervention and the calculation of costs related to a death by suicide side by side, this study may help when allocating funding for effective intervention. Full article
Article
‘It’s Not a Race, It’s a Religion’: Denial of Anti-Muslim Racism in Online Discourses
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100467 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 517
Abstract
This article investigates the denial of anti-Muslim racism in online discourses. It does so by examining Facebook posts responding to a bystander anti-racism video about a Muslim woman. Particularly salient on social media is the lack of rules, etiquette or social taboos around [...] Read more.
This article investigates the denial of anti-Muslim racism in online discourses. It does so by examining Facebook posts responding to a bystander anti-racism video about a Muslim woman. Particularly salient on social media is the lack of rules, etiquette or social taboos around racism controlling what people post and how they express themselves. This allows comments that are blatantly racist and antagonistic rather than concealed and subtle as is more socially acceptable in offline spaces. Using critical discourse analysis, the article will delve into the rhetorical and linguistic strategies the posters use to deny that racism toward Muslims can exist. It will expose how the denial of anti-Muslim racism is used in attempts to silence Muslims and anti-racists as well as to convince the general public that Muslims deserve the ill treatment they receive. However, exposing the strategies of racism deniers gives us a better understanding of how to resist such discourses. Full article
Article
Big Five Personality Factors in Relation to Coping with Contact Restrictions during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Small Sample Study
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100466 - 11 Oct 2022
Viewed by 345
Abstract
To slow down the spread of the SARS-Cov-2 virus, countries worldwide severely restricted public and social life. In addition to the physical threat posed by the viral disease (COVID-19), the pandemic also has implications for psychological well-being. Using a small sample (N [...] Read more.
To slow down the spread of the SARS-Cov-2 virus, countries worldwide severely restricted public and social life. In addition to the physical threat posed by the viral disease (COVID-19), the pandemic also has implications for psychological well-being. Using a small sample (N = 51), we examined how Big Five personality traits relate to coping with contact restrictions during three consecutive weeks in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. We showed that extraversion was associated with suffering from severe contact restrictions and with benefiting from their relaxation. Individuals with high neuroticism did not show a change in their relatively poor coping with the restrictions over time, whereas conscientious individuals seemed to experience no discomfort and even positive feelings during the period of contact restrictions. Our results support the assumption that neuroticism is a vulnerability factor in relation to psychological wellbeing but also show an influence of contact restrictions on extraverted individuals. Full article
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Article
Exploring Citizens Perception of the Police Role and Function in a Post-Colonial Nation
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100465 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Before attempting to develop productive and harmonious working relationships between citizens and the police in a post-colonial society such as Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), it is imperative to initially gain a more precise understanding of the role and function of the police. This [...] Read more.
Before attempting to develop productive and harmonious working relationships between citizens and the police in a post-colonial society such as Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), it is imperative to initially gain a more precise understanding of the role and function of the police. This qualitative study suggested that the current role and function of officers is parallel to the colonial model of policing, where officers operated in a paramilitary manner. This model of policing was concerned with law enforcement and public order duties, which was highlighted as counterproductive for police and public relations. The model was also popular for police treatment based on citizens socioeconomic status. The results of this study suggest that police officers should implement a Service Oriented Policing approach (SOP), which could allow police officers to become proactively involved with communities and citizens, build stronger and increasingly productive relationships and be more effective and efficient as an institution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policing, Security and Safety in Urban Communities)
Article
Non-Specialized Nurses Roles in Diabetes Inpatient Care in Cyprus: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100464 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Aim: The aim of the study was to understand how non-specialized nurses and people with diabetes understand nurses’ roles in diabetes inpatient care. Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health issue that places a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems and [...] Read more.
Aim: The aim of the study was to understand how non-specialized nurses and people with diabetes understand nurses’ roles in diabetes inpatient care. Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health issue that places a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems and world leaders have targeted it for priority action. Design: An interpretative phenomenology approach (IPA). Methods: A total of 24 non-specialized nurses working in medical, surgical and nephrology wards and 24 people with type 1 diabetes who use the services of the state hospitals in Cyprus. The data were collected in two phases: firstly, focus groups with nurses (n = 1) and people with diabetes (n = 2) were conducted and analysed and then individual semi-structured interviews with nurses (n = 18) and with people with diabetes (n = 12) were conducted. Findings: It is evident from the study findings that nurses experience several roles in diabetes inpatient care. Most of these roles have been identified by people with diabetes as well. These roles are summarized as follows: medication administration, patient education, screening of complications, diet and psychological support. However, most of the participants raised concerns about nurses’ ability to conduct such roles. Conclusion: Participants suggest that nurses experience several roles in caring for diabetes inpatients and this view was also shared by people with diabetes. However, it was obvious that these roles differ between specialities. The findings showed that even though participants recognized a number of roles in diabetes inpatient care, their description of how they perform these roles was vague, and they raised concerns about their readiness to take on some of these roles. Full article
Commentary
Gender Trends in Healthcare and Academia—Where Does the University of Malta Stand?
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100463 - 10 Oct 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
A current and pertinent topic is that of gender studies within healthcare students and academic staff of healthcare courses. This commentary explores the feminization of healthcare studies and the extent to which women in Malta hold key roles in academia within the faculties [...] Read more.
A current and pertinent topic is that of gender studies within healthcare students and academic staff of healthcare courses. This commentary explores the feminization of healthcare studies and the extent to which women in Malta hold key roles in academia within the faculties of Health Sciences, Dental Surgery, and Medicine and Surgery at the University of Malta. Data were publicly available from the university website. Gender (male: female ratio) trends were elicited from the data representing each level of qualification as offered by each faculty, while top academic roles within each faculty were noted. As a general trend, the number of students studying healthcare courses has increased, with an increased female-to-male ratio. Yet, in academia, men still occupy top roles. Efforts should be made to cater for all races, ethnicities, genders, sexual orientations, and socioeconomic levels within the healthcare workforce to allow delivery of the best possible service. Full article
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