Race and Ethnic Relations: New Perspectives, Methodologies and Approaches between Online-Offline Spaces

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760). This special issue belongs to the section "International Migration".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2023) | Viewed by 30334

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Psychology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
Interests: psychology; social identity; collective action; social change; online communities

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Guest Editor
School of Social Sciences, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
Interests: borderlands; ethnic and racial studies; peace building and humanitarian interventions; refugees and displaced persons; spaces of solidarity and resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Racism, hate speech and ethnoreligious extremism are of widespread concern globally. These acts are increasingly carried out on online platforms but with implications for offline settings. We see this online/offline cross over in the strength of the Black Lives Matter movement as well as the insidious creep of right-wing extremism on the global scale. 

We know that racism is pervasive across the globe and that it manifests differently across settings and contexts but also has common indicators and possible interventions. In this Special Issue, therefore, we seek to answer questions about the types and implications of online racism in the contemporary world. We are also interested in showcasing the diversity of different research approaches that aim to create solidarity and combat racism in these settings.

Topics might include but are not limited to:

  • Online mobilisation of collective action and allyship to fight racism;
  • New methods to study and prevent racism, such as the use of big data, machine learning, web-based tools, new technologies and mobile apps;
  • Connections between online and offline spaces, and the relationship between online hate speech and offline behaviour;
  • New understandings, definitions and applications of race and ethnic relations;
  • Cross-fertilization of processes, paradigms and disciplines to study race and ethnic relations and combat racism;
  • Ways of mapping the geographic and social diffusion of racism in a technologically connected world;
  • How racism is experienced, and solidarities formed in online and offline settings. 

We welcome abstracts of no more than 300 words and a brief bio. Abstracts are due by 29 June 2021. Notification of acceptance will be provided by 14 July 2021. Full papers for peer review are due by 31 December 2021.

Please email abstracts to [email protected] and [email protected]. 

Dr. Ana-Maria Bliuc
Dr. Rachel Sharples
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Social Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1455 KiB  
Article
Preventing Prejudice Emerging from Misleading News among Adolescents: The Role of Implicit Activation and Regulatory Self-Efficacy in Dealing with Online Misinformation
by Giuseppe Corbelli, Paolo Giovanni Cicirelli, Francesca D’Errico and Marinella Paciello
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(9), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12090470 - 23 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
This paper explores the possibility of preventing prejudice among adolescents by promoting the analytical processing of social media content emerging from racial misinformation. Specifically, we propose, at this aim, an intervention that centers on recognizing stereotypical beliefs and other media biases about a [...] Read more.
This paper explores the possibility of preventing prejudice among adolescents by promoting the analytical processing of social media content emerging from racial misinformation. Specifically, we propose, at this aim, an intervention that centers on recognizing stereotypical beliefs and other media biases about a group of people in misleading news. To better understand the variables that contribute to improving socio-analytical performance in the face of such misinformation, we investigated the influence of implicit associations as a tendency toward the automatic labeling of groups, as well as two dimensions of perceived self-efficacy in the face of misinformation, one active and one inhibitory. Our results demonstrate the presence of a negative link between affective prejudice and socio-analytical processing, and that this analytical performance toward misleading news is negatively related to the individual tendency toward implicit activation, and is also explained by the inhibitory factor of the perceived efficacy toward misinformation. The role of the active factor related to the perceived ability of fact-checking is not significant. This research suggests that education focused on the socio-analytical processing of misleading news in social media feeds can be an effective means of intervening in online affective prejudice among adolescents; the implications and limitations of our findings for future research in this area are discussed. Full article
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16 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
‘It’s Not a Race, It’s a Religion’: Denial of Anti-Muslim Racism in Online Discourses
by Jennifer E. Cheng
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(10), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11100467 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3907
Abstract
This article investigates the denial of anti-Muslim racism in online discourses. It does so by examining Facebook posts responding to a bystander anti-racism video about a Muslim woman. Particularly salient on social media is the lack of rules, etiquette or social taboos around [...] Read more.
This article investigates the denial of anti-Muslim racism in online discourses. It does so by examining Facebook posts responding to a bystander anti-racism video about a Muslim woman. Particularly salient on social media is the lack of rules, etiquette or social taboos around racism controlling what people post and how they express themselves. This allows comments that are blatantly racist and antagonistic rather than concealed and subtle as is more socially acceptable in offline spaces. Using critical discourse analysis, the article will delve into the rhetorical and linguistic strategies the posters use to deny that racism toward Muslims can exist. It will expose how the denial of anti-Muslim racism is used in attempts to silence Muslims and anti-racists as well as to convince the general public that Muslims deserve the ill treatment they receive. However, exposing the strategies of racism deniers gives us a better understanding of how to resist such discourses. Full article
22 pages, 1323 KiB  
Article
Online and Offline Coordination in Australia’s Far-Right: A Study of True Blue Crew
by Jade Hutchinson, Muhammad Iqbal, Mario Peucker and Debra Smith
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(9), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11090421 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3318
Abstract
Far-right extremism transpires in virtual and physical space. In this study, we examine how the Australian far-right extremist group ‘True Blue Crew’ attempted to coordinate their offline activities with their social media activism. To this end, we conducted a thematic content analysis of [...] Read more.
Far-right extremism transpires in virtual and physical space. In this study, we examine how the Australian far-right extremist group ‘True Blue Crew’ attempted to coordinate their offline activities with their social media activism. To this end, we conducted a thematic content analysis of administrator posts and user comments present on the group’s Facebook page prior to and following an organised street rally in June 2017. This online analysis was partnered with ethnographic field work to gauge the perceptions of group members and supporters during the rally in Melbourne, Victoria. The results highlight the multi-dimensional and intimate manner in which online and offline contexts are coordinated to support far-right activism and mobilisation. This study offers an empirical account of how far-right attitudes, activism, and mobilisation transpired in Australia in the years prior to an Australian committing the Christchurch terror attack. It reveals a growing frustration within the broader far-right movement, leading to later strategic adaptation that can be interpreted as an early warning sign of an environment increasingly conducive to violence. This provides a more nuanced understanding of the context from which far-right terrorism emerges, and speaks to the importance of maintaining a level of analysis that transverses the social and the individual, as well as the online and the offline spaces. Implications for security and government agencies responses are discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Cultural Identity in Bicultural Young Adults in Ireland: A Social Representation Theory Approach
by Mamobo Ogoro, Anca Minescu and Mairead Moriarty
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(6), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11060230 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5414
Abstract
This research investigates the nature by which first- and second-generation Irish young adults of (1) African descent, (2) Asian descent, and (3) Eastern European descent explore their cultural identity(ies) through communicating and interpreting social representations relating to their ethnic and national cultures. Using [...] Read more.
This research investigates the nature by which first- and second-generation Irish young adults of (1) African descent, (2) Asian descent, and (3) Eastern European descent explore their cultural identity(ies) through communicating and interpreting social representations relating to their ethnic and national cultures. Using Social Representation Theory (SRT) and, more widely, Proculturation Theory as the theoretical underpinning, we examine how grown children of migrants construct their cultural identity(ies) by exploring external social representations. We conducted three separate in-depth focus groups for each continental group in virtual rooms on Zoom, lasting between 60 and 90 mins. A thematic analysis was pursued to understand how the participants discussed the representation of their cultural groups both in social and media-driven situations. The results indicated the overarching themes of Anchoring Irishness and Latent Media Representation, whereby participants communicated and dialogically explored their subjective interpretations of the social representations of their cultural groups which, in turn, may have informed their cultural identity(ies). Highlighting the dynamic nature of the cultural reality of Ireland and how it impacts generations after the initial migration period, this research highlights and exemplifies the importance of external social representations that serve to construct the multiple cultural identities of first- and second-generation migrants. Full article
19 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
Asian Australians’ Experiences of Online Racism during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Alanna Kamp, Nida Denson, Rachel Sharples and Rosalie Atie
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050227 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 6316
Abstract
Between 13 November 2020 and 11 February 2021, an online national survey of 2003 Asian Australians was conducted to measure the type and frequency of self-identified Asian Australians’ experiences of racism during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey also aimed to gauge the relationships [...] Read more.
Between 13 November 2020 and 11 February 2021, an online national survey of 2003 Asian Australians was conducted to measure the type and frequency of self-identified Asian Australians’ experiences of racism during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey also aimed to gauge the relationships between racist experiences and targets’ mental health, wellbeing and sense of belonging. In this paper, we report findings on the type and frequency of online racist experiences and their associations with mental health, wellbeing and belonging. The survey found that 40 per cent of participants experienced racism during the COVID-19 pandemic. Within that group, 66 per cent experienced racism online. The demographic pattern of those most likely to experience online racism were younger age groups, males, those born in Australia, English speakers at home, non-Christians, and migrants who have been in Australia less than 20 years. Analysis also found a strong correlation between Asian Australians’ experiences of online racism and poor mental health, wellbeing and belonging. The relationship between experiencing racism, non-belonging and morbidity were more pronounced for those who experienced online racism compared to those who experienced racism in other offline contexts. This points to the corrosive nature of online racism on social cohesion, health and belonging. Full article
19 pages, 1041 KiB  
Article
Racial and Ethnic Discrimination in Portugal in Times of Pandemic Crisis
by Inês Casquilho-Martins, Helena Belchior-Rocha and David Ramalho Alves
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(5), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11050184 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 8111
Abstract
During the last two years, the pandemic has dominated the public attention and debate around the world, centering on socio-economic aspects and having camouflaged other social, cultural and even environmental issues. This study sought to analyze ethno-racial discrimination processes, identifying significant events in [...] Read more.
During the last two years, the pandemic has dominated the public attention and debate around the world, centering on socio-economic aspects and having camouflaged other social, cultural and even environmental issues. This study sought to analyze ethno-racial discrimination processes, identifying significant events in Portugal during the period of the current global crisis. We utilized document analysis of national and international reports produced in the last five years, complementing with secondary statistical data and the analysis of online news and users’ comments published in national media during the last two years. The results show that, although there has been a development in Portuguese legislation and in anti-discrimination measures, there has been an increase in racist and xenophobic phenomena in Portugal. Citizens’ perceptions, indicators and reports from official bodies show evidence of discriminatory behavior. Additionally, within this framework, we see a greater political presence of extreme right-wing movements, as well as an increase in hate speech in online news comments. Thus, although there is an awareness of the seriousness of these phenomena, there is an urgent need for actions against racial and ethnic intolerance and greater effective measures for ideological crimes. Full article
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