The formation and dripping behavior of droplets in the process of the electroslag remelting with two series-connected electrodes (TSCE-ESR) has an important influence on the optimization of power supply parameters and the purity of the electroslag ingot. In this article, through numerical simulation based on the VOF (volume of fluid) model, combined with the transparent experimental device for physical simulation, the mechanism of metal droplet formation and the effect of the filling rate on its droplet behavior were studied. The results showed that the proximity effect, instead of the skin effect, is a major factor influencing droplet formation in TSCE-ESR process. The proximity effect makes the region inside the two electrode tip melt first, and the molten steel converges at the electrode tips to form a droplet source. The process of droplet formation and dropping can be divided into three stages: formation of molten layer, droplet stretching and necking, and detachment. In the stage of droplet stretching and necking, the increase in the contact area between the droplet and the slag and the instantaneous increase of the current provide good thermodynamic and dynamic conditions for the removal of non-metallic inclusions. After the droplet drops into the slag pool, it promotes the flow of slag and improves the heat and mass transfer efficiency of the slag/metal interface. The relatively large filling rate can form smaller and dispersed droplets, which improves the refining effect. At the same time, the increase of the filling rate can improve the input power and the electrode remelting rate.
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