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Volume 10, June

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Societies, Volume 10, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 14 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Preservation without Representation: Making CLG Programs Vehicles for Inclusive Leadership, Historic Preservation, and Engagement
Societies 2020, 10(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030060 - 11 Aug 2020
Viewed by 468
Abstract
This article examines public historic preservation agencies’ ability to support social inclusion aims within the context of the Certified Local Government (CLG) program. Though administered by the Texas Historical Commission, Texas’ State CLG program is federally-funded and makes available special access to technical [...] Read more.
This article examines public historic preservation agencies’ ability to support social inclusion aims within the context of the Certified Local Government (CLG) program. Though administered by the Texas Historical Commission, Texas’ State CLG program is federally-funded and makes available special access to technical assistance, grants, and loans to qualifying communities contingent on compliance. Program surveys the state staff administered to city and county historical commissions with the CLG designation indicate challenges around diversifying their leadership and identifying training opportunities. This article reviews those surveys to detect insights into how the state CLG program can create spaces in which local commissions can increase their “representativeness” through changes in assessment and training content. Specifically, I analyze two government assessment tools used to evaluate local CLGs’ ability to meet federal and state training and participation expectations. I compare these survey results to self-assessment activities and questionnaires collected during a pilot training on implicit bias, outreach, and cultural resource surveying I conducted with multiple CLGs in Gonzales, Texas. Findings suggest more creatively designed training and capacity building is necessary around inclusion, identifying structural barriers to participation, and foundational knowledge of historic preservation and planning practice, and ethics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Asset-Based Perspective of the Economic Contributions of Latinx Communities: An Illinois Case Study
Societies 2020, 10(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030059 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 592
Abstract
The study aims to measure Latinx share of economic activities and highlight and its increasing role in the economic future of their state. As a methodology we use input-output model-based IMPLAN to calculate the economic footprint of Latinx in Illinois. We demonstrate how [...] Read more.
The study aims to measure Latinx share of economic activities and highlight and its increasing role in the economic future of their state. As a methodology we use input-output model-based IMPLAN to calculate the economic footprint of Latinx in Illinois. We demonstrate how this labor force has allowed the state to expand production and purchasing power. In the conclusion we discuss how this line of investigation allows us to explore what decision makers can do to facilitate a Latinx action agenda from the asset-based perspective. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Disaggregating the Asian “Other”: Heterogeneity and Methodological Issues in Research on Asian Americans with Disabilities
Societies 2020, 10(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030058 - 28 Jul 2020
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Asian Americans comprise the fastest growing racial or ethnic group in the US. Between 2000 and 2019, their numbers almost doubled, from 11.9 million to 22.2 million. The numbers of people with disabilities within this demographically important population, which are also growing, puts [...] Read more.
Asian Americans comprise the fastest growing racial or ethnic group in the US. Between 2000 and 2019, their numbers almost doubled, from 11.9 million to 22.2 million. The numbers of people with disabilities within this demographically important population, which are also growing, puts stress on the service delivery sector. This situation indicates a pressing need for research on lived experiences of disabled Asian Americans. A review of the extant literature shows that Asian Americans are underrepresented in the research on disability and/or mental health. This lack of hard data is compounded by the tendency to treat Asian ethnicities as monolithic. The US Census Bureau recognizes more than 20 distinct Asian nationalities, ranging from South Asian Pakistani Americans to Southeast Asian Americans. Aggregating all Asian Americans together in surveys and studies impedes a sophisticated understanding of their unique needs and strengths. From a policy or systems perspective, inadequate data representation in the research literature, including outdated conclusions, is an implicit form of disenfranchisement. This conceptual article examines issues and implications around the lack of systematic attention to diversity within the Asian American population in disability research. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Creative Writing Workshop on Sexuality and Ageing: A Spanish Pilot Case Study
Societies 2020, 10(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030057 - 26 Jul 2020
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Negative stereotypes about old age abound in our present-day society, which often considers older people as sexually incapable or even asexual. On the other hand, active ageing ideologies foster the practice of sex in later life as a sign of healthy and active [...] Read more.
Negative stereotypes about old age abound in our present-day society, which often considers older people as sexually incapable or even asexual. On the other hand, active ageing ideologies foster the practice of sex in later life as a sign of healthy and active ageing. The aim of this pilot case study was to examine the impact that poetry on sexuality, ageing and creativity had on older individuals. In total eight participants, aged 49–76, participated in a workshop offered by the University of Lleida (Spain). The initial hypothesis was that the participants, following the example set by the poems, would produce pieces of creative writing in which they voiced their own concerns and experiences about sexuality in later life from the distance that metaphor grants. While some of the participants’ writings engaged with the poems that deal with sexuality in older age, none of the participants’ creative pieces contained explicit instances of sexual experiences. The analysis of the participants’ creative pieces suggests that: first, they regard intimacy in older age as essential; and second, their unwillingness to write about sexuality in older age is partly rooted in their upbringing during Franco’s dictatorial regime, in which sexuality for non-reproductive aims was constructed as immoral. Full article
Open AccessReview
Organizational Silos: A Scoping Review Informed by a Behavioral Perspective on Systems and Networks
Societies 2020, 10(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030056 - 24 Jul 2020
Viewed by 676
Abstract
In recent years, several organizations have implemented interventions aimed at integrating work processes and bridging network clusters. These are often permeated by different assumptions regarding clusters in organizational settings. There are concerns about the formation of silos and structural barriers to communication across [...] Read more.
In recent years, several organizations have implemented interventions aimed at integrating work processes and bridging network clusters. These are often permeated by different assumptions regarding clusters in organizational settings. There are concerns about the formation of silos and structural barriers to communication across the formal and informal network structures. Conversely, network clusters are regarded as spaces of local social reinforcement from which innovation ideas may emerge. Although terminologically and functionally different, they share some common features insofar as organizational behavior is concerned and the production of artifacts that fulfill organizational goals. The present scoping review presents an analysis of the literature on organizational silos while investigating attempts to bridge network clusters. Based on the search results, 40 studies were included in the analysis of the findings; of these, 20 were empirical studies and were included in a further quantitative analysis of methods and findings. We identified patterns of definitions of silos and variation in terms of aims, variables, and methods used to evaluate interventions among the heterogeneous studies. Special attention was dedicated to the role of consequences of siloed organizational behavior. We conclude that silos comprise barriers to achieving organizational goals insofar as they pose a threat to internal cooperation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Participation with Style. Clothing among Young Activists in Political Groups
Societies 2020, 10(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030055 - 23 Jul 2020
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Research shows that forms of participation among youth are strongly differentiated and connected with complex meanings and motivations. A growing sector of youth develops political intervention through the adoption of distinctive everyday practices and lifestyles. The article aims to reflect upon dress among [...] Read more.
Research shows that forms of participation among youth are strongly differentiated and connected with complex meanings and motivations. A growing sector of youth develops political intervention through the adoption of distinctive everyday practices and lifestyles. The article aims to reflect upon dress among young activists involved in political groups. Very little research focuses on this topic, but following studies on everyday politics, the young activists’ clothing could be considered as a form and a field of political participation. This approach, however, seems not to be sufficient to interpret the phenomenon. Taking inspiration from research about youth cultures, the article suggests interpreting youth clothing conjointly as a component of style, as a means for constructing collective identity, and social positioning. The article is based on qualitative interviews collected in Piedmont (Italy). Six main topics have been investigated: 1. Socialization to clothing; 2. clothing of the activists and in their groups; 3. meanings of clothing; 4. relevance of clothing; 5. practices of buying clothes; 6. clothes as consumer goods. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Bridges Don’t Make Themselves: Using Community-Based Theater to Reshape Relationships: Rethinking the Idea of Abundance in ABCD
Societies 2020, 10(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030054 - 21 Jul 2020
Viewed by 306
Abstract
Community-based theater has a variety of manifestations, and the plurality with which these manifestations are occurring is increasing. As such, the diversity and complexity derived from these social sites of public engagement requires further understanding. This article is based upon a multi-case study [...] Read more.
Community-based theater has a variety of manifestations, and the plurality with which these manifestations are occurring is increasing. As such, the diversity and complexity derived from these social sites of public engagement requires further understanding. This article is based upon a multi-case study of two community-based theaters: one in Middle Appalachia, and the other on the Gulf Coast of Florida. Together these sites of performative expression are acting as social interventions for differing reasons within their respective contexts. Through intensive and communicative processes, the theaters provide examples of how co-created performances at the community level simultaneously catalyze relationships and alter how relationships are experienced to engage community members in discussion and performances. As a complex behavioral interaction, the two theaters simultaneously manifest dimensions of ‘abundance’, as well as expand upon normative conceptions of asset-based community development. Through process and contextual modeling, the work provides in-depth exploration to these interpersonal endeavors to assist in how socio-cultural differences as well as narrative reconstruction co-join to enact the individuality of identity across working groups as an overall discursive process. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Youth Agency in Civic Education: Contemporary Perspectives from Cabo Verde
Societies 2020, 10(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030053 - 20 Jul 2020
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Globally, young people have demonstrated a certain level of disenchantment with the way their societies are being governed. Whereas some argue that they have become apathetic and somehow passive bystanders, new trends highlight that the opposite is true in many parts of the [...] Read more.
Globally, young people have demonstrated a certain level of disenchantment with the way their societies are being governed. Whereas some argue that they have become apathetic and somehow passive bystanders, new trends highlight that the opposite is true in many parts of the world. This paper explores the dynamics of youth groups in Cabo Verde who are acting on their frustrations with the lack of state-led citizenship education and enacting new sites to empower other citizens, foster critical and active citizenship as well as develop capabilities to engage, both individually and collectively, in civic and political activities. Two youth-led initiatives, Djumbai Libertariu and Parlamentu di Guetto, which emerged recently in the capital city Praia, will be analysed as social movements contributing to the emergence of new civic spaces, led by youth, for citizenship education, with the aim of tackling the lack of civil society action and attempting to address issues of general concern through both individual and collective action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Citizenship Education and Civil Society)
Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of the Factors Influencing Public Attitudes toward Implementing Basic Income (BI) from an Individual Perspective: A Case Study of Hokuriku Region, Japan
Societies 2020, 10(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030052 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 322
Abstract
With increasing interest in basic income (BI) in recent years around the world, a precise understanding of public attitudes toward this policy can provide valuable evidence for discussions on its feasibility among scholars and policymakers. This study quantitatively investigates what factors influence public [...] Read more.
With increasing interest in basic income (BI) in recent years around the world, a precise understanding of public attitudes toward this policy can provide valuable evidence for discussions on its feasibility among scholars and policymakers. This study quantitatively investigates what factors influence public attitudes toward implementing BI, taking the Hokuriku region of Japan as an example. The hypothesis and variables were designed based on the theories of retrenchment and social innovation, and a detailed consideration of the theoretical impacts of BI on human society, and of the social, economic and cultural characteristics of Japan. A questionnaire containing a BI proposal for Japan was developed, then a survey was conducted of 1028 local residents in the Hokuriku region. The logistic regression model was employed for the empirical analysis. The results showed that age, individual income level, family structure and interest in participating in non-market activities tend to influence respondents’ attitudes toward BI, due to concerns about the gains and losses from a trade-off selection between BI and the existing policies that it would replace. From the perspective of individual value, it was also found that the perception of the future vision of a society reshaped by BI also significantly influences public attitudes toward the policy. This research emphasized that the retrenchment of the existing policies accompanied by the implementation of BI lead potential beneficiaries of the current welfare system to weigh the change to their benefits, which consequently forms their attitudes toward BI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Before #MeToo: Violence against Women Social Media Work, Bystander Intervention, and Social Change
Societies 2020, 10(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030051 - 15 Jul 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
High-profile, social-media-fueled movements such as #MeToo have captured broader public attention in recent years and sparked widespread discussion of violence against women (VAW). However, online prevention work was underway in the years leading up to #MeToo, as the emergence and proliferation of social [...] Read more.
High-profile, social-media-fueled movements such as #MeToo have captured broader public attention in recent years and sparked widespread discussion of violence against women (VAW). However, online prevention work was underway in the years leading up to #MeToo, as the emergence and proliferation of social media enabled individuals to be increasingly active participants in shaping conversations about VAW. Situated within feminist VAW scholarship and the social–ecological framework of violence prevention, this paper draws from interviews with a cross-section of service providers, public educators, activists, advocates, writers, and researchers to analyze “conversation” as a central theme in VAW prevention work in social media. Results reveal that these conversations take place in three central ways: (1) engaging wider audiences in conversations to raise awareness about VAW; (2) narrative shifts challenging societal norms that support or enable VAW; and (3) mobilization around high-profile news stories. The paper finds that, through these conversations, this work moves beyond individual-level risk factors to target much needed community- and societal-level aspects, primarily harmful social norms that circulate and become reinforced in digital media spaces. Moreover, while bystander intervention has traditionally been approached as an offline pursuit to intervene in face-to-face situations of VAW, this paper argues that we can understand and value these VAW prevention efforts as an online form of bystander intervention. Finally, resource challenges and VAW prevention workers’ experiences of harassment and abuse related to their online work highlights a need to strengthen social and institutional supports for this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Inequality and Human Rights in a Digital World)
Open AccessArticle
“The Voice of the Parent Cannot be Undervalued”: Pre-Service Teachers’ Observations after Listening to the Experiences of Parents of Students with Disabilities
Societies 2020, 10(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030050 - 13 Jul 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The purpose of this qualitative research was to consider the influence of parent interaction on the perspectives of pre-service teachers with regards to their interactions with and instruction of students with disabilities. The data set for this research was 106 reflection papers written [...] Read more.
The purpose of this qualitative research was to consider the influence of parent interaction on the perspectives of pre-service teachers with regards to their interactions with and instruction of students with disabilities. The data set for this research was 106 reflection papers written as part of a class assignment after the pre-service teachers participated in a discussion panel with parents of children with disabilities. The pre-service teachers were asked to reflect on things they learned after listening to the parents and how they would use that information in their future interactions with parents when they had their own classrooms. The findings suggest that listening to the parents’ experience from the parents themselves had an impact on the pre-service teachers and would positively influence their future interactions. Recommendations to improve opportunities for parent exposure in teacher-education programs are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Ability Expectation and Ableism Studies (Short Ability Studies))
Open AccessConcept Paper
The Return of the Clan in Sweden
Societies 2020, 10(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030049 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 520
Abstract
This is a conceptual paper which deals with a subject that has been neglected by contemporary Swedish researchers, politicians and journalists: the clan society, which is one of the most common forms of society in the world—from which many of today’s nations seem [...] Read more.
This is a conceptual paper which deals with a subject that has been neglected by contemporary Swedish researchers, politicians and journalists: the clan society, which is one of the most common forms of society in the world—from which many of today’s nations seem to have sprung. The thesis of the essay is that the taboo around the clan issue has meant that we have no capacity to understand foreign policy or integration policy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Man Robbery—A Gender Signifier in Convict Australia 1827–1836
Societies 2020, 10(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030048 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 341
Abstract
This paper investigates the use of the anomalous term ‘man robbery’ in historical records relating to convict women in New South Wales. We question its accuracy as a criminal offence and conclude that its use in the 1830s was an administrative code that [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the use of the anomalous term ‘man robbery’ in historical records relating to convict women in New South Wales. We question its accuracy as a criminal offence and conclude that its use in the 1830s was an administrative code that summarized an assessment not only of the women’s criminality but also of their morality. Its use in the historical records has been accepted uncritically by modern historians. The anomaly was identified through a large-scale study of these records. Often used to trace the histories of individual women for genealogical research, recurring patterns in the records are more noticeable when considering the crimes of some 5000 women transported to New South Wales, especially when their court records held in Britain are compared with those held in Australia. Evidence has emerged that the criminality of the women has been reduced by this gendered criminal offence. Inconsistency in the application of the term ‘man robbery’ led us to question it accuracy. Violence and participation in gangs were airbrushed from the records by the use of a term that implied that the women’s crimes related to their sexuality rather than their skills as criminals. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
On the Hunt for Noble Savages: Romance Tourism and Ageing Femininities
Societies 2020, 10(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc10030047 - 28 Jun 2020
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Casual sexual encounters are closely wedded to leisure travel, and have received a lot of attention in both theoretical and empirical work. However, the relationship between romance tourism and female ageing remains largely under-researched. This article offers critical insights into the interplay of [...] Read more.
Casual sexual encounters are closely wedded to leisure travel, and have received a lot of attention in both theoretical and empirical work. However, the relationship between romance tourism and female ageing remains largely under-researched. This article offers critical insights into the interplay of the successful ageing and sexual relationships abroad of older women travellers. It shows that romance tourism has both positive and negative implications for women’s physical and psychological health and wellbeing. Although exotic escapes help reconnect women with their youthful selves, enhancing a sense of self-confidence and challenging the narrative of decline, casual sex may also generate conflicting feelings once the travel romance is over. This article also encourages the rethinking of the complexities of ageing femininities, sexual activity and health risk in ‘silver’ romance tourism today. Additionally, it argues that the sexual health guidelines and information campaigns should adopt a more multifaceted approach to sexual expressions, and encourage alternative views towards sex and sexuality in later life, in order to not create a rather oppressive ideology among older women. Full article
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