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Sports, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Protective American Football Headgear on Peripheral Vision Reaction Time and Visual Target Detection in Division I NCAA Football Players
Sports 2019, 7(9), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090213 - 16 Sep 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of protective football headgear on peripheral vision reaction time and visual target detection. Twenty-five Division I NCAA football players (age = 20.5 yrs ± 0.9, height = 185.9 cm ± 6.8, body mass [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of protective football headgear on peripheral vision reaction time and visual target detection. Twenty-five Division I NCAA football players (age = 20.5 yrs ± 0.9, height = 185.9 cm ± 6.8, body mass = 99.2 kg ± 19.2, BMI = 29.6 ± 4.5) participated. In a crossover counterbalanced study design, subjects participated in one visit with three conditions: Baseline (BL) without headgear, helmet only (HO), helmet with an eye shield (HE). Subjects completed a 1-min peripheral vision reaction time test for each condition separated by 3-min recovery periods. Tests were administered using a 64 light Dynavision D2 Visuomotor board. Target detection (total hit score) was higher during BL than HO (p < 0.001) and HE (p < 0.001). Average (p < 0.001), peak (p < 0.001), minimum (p < 0.001), and median (p < 0.001) peripheral reaction times were faster during BL than HO and HE. No significant differences were observed for any measures between HO and HE conditions (p > 0.05). Findings indicate that protective football headgear impaired reaction time to peripheral visual stimuli. The addition of an eye shield to the helmet had a small non-significant effect on reaction time and target detection. These results may hold important implications in helmet design and player safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Science for Elite Athletes)
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Unique Contributions of the Coach–Athlete Working Alliance, Psychological Resilience and Perceived Stress on Athlete Burnout among Norwegian Junior Athletes
Sports 2019, 7(9), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090212 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 287
Abstract
The main purpose of the current study was to examine how the coach-athlete working alliance, psychological resilience and perceived stress are uniquely associated with burnout among junior athletes in sport. A sample of 670 Norwegian junior athletes practicing a variety of sports participated [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the current study was to examine how the coach-athlete working alliance, psychological resilience and perceived stress are uniquely associated with burnout among junior athletes in sport. A sample of 670 Norwegian junior athletes practicing a variety of sports participated in the study. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that the bond dimension of the working alliance, the protective factors ‘planned future’ and ‘structured style’, as well as perceived stress, all contributed uniquely to the explanation of athlete burnout. A dominance analysis identified perceived stress to have the strongest relative influence on athlete burnout among the set of variables investigated in this study. The findings are discussed in terms of applied implications and possible future research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Individual Adaptation in Cross-Country Skiing Based on Tracking during Training Conditions
Sports 2019, 7(9), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090211 - 12 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Research on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and blood pressure (BP) during specific training stages is less common in endurance athletes, whereas resting BP and HR are less studied in relationship to HRmax. In the current study, the objective [...] Read more.
Research on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and blood pressure (BP) during specific training stages is less common in endurance athletes, whereas resting BP and HR are less studied in relationship to HRmax. In the current study, the objective was to conduct a medium-term HR, BP and MAP analysis while tracking individual training outcomes. The study was conducted during the 2017–2018 season, over 43 days and 1033 km of training volume, on 12 competitive male cross-country ski athletes. One VO2max test was performed 10 days before the start of the training program. After the test, training volume and intensity was preset for each subject, according to the general training methodology. Early morning HR, MAP and BP measurements were taken as part of the basic functional analysis. Training volume was correlated to both distance (p = 0.01, r = 0.85, CI95% = 0.80 to 0.88) and training HR%, namely the percentage of HRmax (p = 0.01, r = −0.47, CI95% = −0.58 to −0.34). Both the supine (sHR) and orthostatic HR (oHR) values were significantly correlated with the training intensity. We obtained a significant correlation between sHR and oHR values and the training objective (p = 0.01). An increased oHR was correlated to high intensity training activity (HIT) during the second training session (p = 0.01). Heart rate and blood pressure measurements represent predictive functional adaptation parameters over different training phases. We highlight a link between sHR, oHR, MAP data, and the athletes’ ability to perform in lower effort zones during physical exertion. However, we failed to validate MAP as a cardiovascular stress indicator following high intensity training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Science for Elite Athletes)
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Open AccessArticle
Running Propensities of Athletes with Hamstring Injuries
Sports 2019, 7(9), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090210 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The current study aims to compare the mechanical propensities between healthy runners and runners with hamstring injuries. Retrospective case-control video analysis was used. A total of 35 (12 male and 23 female) videos of runners with hamstring injuries were compared with videos of [...] Read more.
The current study aims to compare the mechanical propensities between healthy runners and runners with hamstring injuries. Retrospective case-control video analysis was used. A total of 35 (12 male and 23 female) videos of runners with hamstring injuries were compared with videos of sex-, age-, mass-, and height-matched healthy control runners. The main outcome variables were trunk posture angles, overstride angles, and foot strike patterns. An independent t-test and chi-squared tests were employed to analyze the main outcome variables between the runners with hamstring injuries and the healthy control runners. The statistical significance of less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) was used. The runners with hamstring injuries had a 1.6° less forward-trunk posture angles compared with the healthy control runners (p = 0.043). Also, the runners with hamstring injuries demonstrated a 4.9° greater overstride angles compared with the healthy control runners (p = 0.001). Finally, the runners with hamstring injuries had a tendency of rearfoot strike, while the healthy control runners showed a forefoot strike pattern (p = 0.004). In conclusion, the runners with hamstring injuries demonstrated different running mechanical propensities compared with the healthy runners. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Kinematic and Kinetic Analyses of the Vertical Jump with and without Header as Performed by Para-Footballers with Cerebral Palsy
Sports 2019, 7(9), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090209 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 221
Abstract
Vertical jump is a relevant variable in the classification of football for individuals with cerebral palsy. In this regard, the literature is limited. There are no studies assessing vertical jumping ability through kinematic methods and in more specific football game situations, such as [...] Read more.
Vertical jump is a relevant variable in the classification of football for individuals with cerebral palsy. In this regard, the literature is limited. There are no studies assessing vertical jumping ability through kinematic methods and in more specific football game situations, such as jumps with a header. The goals of the present study were to assess how the modification of jumping conditions (without and with a header) might affect the kinematic and kinetic parameters of counter movement jumping, and whether the functional profiles of the players constrain their ability to jump vertically, both with and without a header. Thirteen male football players with cerebral palsy (27.7 ± 5.7 years old) and different functional profiles participated in this study. All the players performed ten counter movement jumps with arms swing, five headed a ball and five did not. The kinematic parameters were recorded with a 3D motion analysis system, and the kinetic parameters using a force platform. Significantly smaller angles of the hips (dg = 0.75–0.79; p < 0.01) and knees (dg = 1.04–1.15; p < 0.05), as well as greater ankle extension (dg = −0.71; p < 0.05), were observed during the eccentric phase of the jumps with a header. There were also asymmetries between legs in ankle extension during jumps with a header (dg = −1.06; p < 0.05), which could be an adjustment element for the precision of the jumps (i.e., header action). It should be mentioned that the jumping pattern could be partially affected by the functional profile of football players with cerebral palsy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researching Sports Biomechanics for Disabled People)
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Open AccessArticle
Motivation Regulation among Black Women Triathletes
Sports 2019, 7(9), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090208 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 253
Abstract
There is a paucity of information on motivation among U.S. minority triathletes. This study aimed to understand the extrinsic motivation and regulators of Black women triathletes using a modified version of the valid Motivations of Marathoners Scale and semi-structured interviews, for triathletes. The [...] Read more.
There is a paucity of information on motivation among U.S. minority triathletes. This study aimed to understand the extrinsic motivation and regulators of Black women triathletes using a modified version of the valid Motivations of Marathoners Scale and semi-structured interviews, for triathletes. The Self Determination Theory guided the dual method assessment of the extrinsic motivators and the regulators external, introjection, and integrated. Using MANOVA, data from (N = 121) triathletes were compared across participant categories of age, body mass index, and distance. Results showed a significant age difference with younger women displaying more motivation. Descriptive means indicated integration as the greatest regulator of motivation. The statements ‘to compete with myself’ and ‘to be more fit,’ had the highest means among the women. A sub-sample of 12 interviews were conducted revealing 16 extrinsic themes. Six were related to the regulator integration and two unexpectantly related to the regulator, identified. Integrated themes, including coping mechanisms, finishing course, improvement, accomplishment, and physical awareness were most represented. This research fills gaps of understanding extrinsic motivation and the regulators of a group not previously explored. Future research on motivation among triathletes may benefit knowing how motivations are regulated, as to promote personalized training and participation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Validity and Reliability of Kinematics Measured with PUSH Band vs. Linear Encoder in Bench Press and Push-Ups
Sports 2019, 7(9), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090207 - 10 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the validity and reliability of a PUSH band device with a linear encoder to measure movement velocity with different loads during the push-up and bench press exercises. Methods: Twenty resistance-trained athletes performed push-up and [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the validity and reliability of a PUSH band device with a linear encoder to measure movement velocity with different loads during the push-up and bench press exercises. Methods: Twenty resistance-trained athletes performed push-up and bench press exercises with four different loads: without weight vest, 10-20-30 kg weight vest, bench press: 50–82% of their assumed 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) in steps of 10 kg. A linear encoder (Musclelab) and the PUSH band measured mean and peak velocity during both exercises. Several statistical analyses were used to investigate the validity and reliability of the PUSH band with the linear encoder. Results: The main findings of this study demonstrated only moderate associations between the PUSH band and linear encoder for mean velocity (r = 0.62, 0.70) and peak velocity (r = 0.46, 0.49) for both exercises. Furthermore, a good level of agreement (peak velocity: ICC = 0.60, 0.64; mean velocity: ICC = 0.77, 0.78) was observed between the two measurement devices. However, a significant bias was found with lower velocity values measured with the PUSH band in both exercises. In the push-up, both the linear encoder and PUSH band were deemed very reliable (ICC > 0.98; the coefficient of variation (CV): 5.9–7.3%). Bench press reliability decreased for the PUSH band (ICC < 0.95), and the coefficient of variance increased to (12.8–13.3%) for the velocity measures. Calculated 1 RM with the two devices was the same for the push-up, while in bench press the PUSH band under-estimated the 1 RM by 14 kg compared to the linear encoder. Conclusions: It was concluded that the PUSH band will show decreased reliability from velocity measures in a bench press exercise and underestimate load-velocity based 1 RM predictions. For training, the PUSH band can be used during push-ups, however caution is suggested when using the device for the purposes of feedback in bench press at increasing loads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence, Magnitude and Methods of Rapid Weight Loss Reported by Male Mixed Martial Arts Athletes in Ireland
Sports 2019, 7(9), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090206 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Rapid weight loss (RWL) is frequently practiced in weight category sports, including Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). The aim of the present study was to describe self-reported methods of RWL in a sample of competitive MMA athletes comprising of both amateur and professional fighters. [...] Read more.
Rapid weight loss (RWL) is frequently practiced in weight category sports, including Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). The aim of the present study was to describe self-reported methods of RWL in a sample of competitive MMA athletes comprising of both amateur and professional fighters. The previously-validated Rapid Weight Loss Questionnaire, with the addition of questions on water loading and hot salt baths, was completed anonymously online by athletes (n = 30; all male, n = 15/15 professional/amateur) from MMA clubs around Dublin, Ireland. All but one (97%) of the athletes surveyed lost weight in order to compete, with the average weight loss being 7.9% ± 3.1% of habitual body mass. The RWL score (mean ± SD) for this sample was 37.9 ± 9.6, and a tendency for higher [6.0 (95%CI; −1.1, 13.1) (p = 0.093; d = 0.64)] RWL scores for professional (40.8 ± 8.9) compared to amateur (34.8 ± 9.6) athletes was observed. Frequencies of “always” or “sometimes” were reported as 90% for water loading, 76% for hot salt baths and 55% for 24 h of fasting. Fellow fighters (41%) and coaches/mentors (38%) were “very influential” on RWL practices of these athletes, with doctors (67%), dietitians (41%), and physical trainers (37%) said to be “not influential”. RWL is highly prevalent in MMA across both amateur and professional athletes, and RWL scores are higher than other combat sports. Water loading and hot salt baths are amongst the most commonly used methods of RWL despite little research on these methods for body mass reduction or effects on performance in weight category sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Performance Challenges in Martial Arts and Combat Sports)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Effects of Six-Weeks Change of Direction Speed and Technique Modification Training on Cutting Performance and Movement Quality in Male Youth Soccer Players
Sports 2019, 7(9), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090205 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Cutting manoeuvres are important actions associated with soccer performance and a key action associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury; thus, training interventions that can improve cutting performance and movement quality are of great interest. The aim of this study, therefore, was to [...] Read more.
Cutting manoeuvres are important actions associated with soccer performance and a key action associated with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury; thus, training interventions that can improve cutting performance and movement quality are of great interest. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the effects of a six-week change of dire[ction (COD) speed and technique modification training intervention on cutting performance and movement quality in male youth soccer players (U17s, n = 8) in comparison to a control group (CG) (U18s, n = 11) who continued ‘normal’ training. Cutting performance was assessed based on completion time and COD deficit, and the field-based cutting movement assessment score (CMAS) qualitative screening tool was used to assess cutting movement quality. Significant main effects for time (pre-to-post changes) (p ≤ 0.041, η2 = 0.224–0.839) and significant interaction effects of time and group were observed for cutting completion times, COD deficits, and CMASs. Improvements in completion time (p < 0.001, g = 1.63–1.90, −9% to −11% vs. −5% to 6%) and COD deficit (p ≤ 0.012, g = −1.63 to −2.43, −40–52% vs. −22% to −28%) for the COD intervention group (IG) were approximately two-times greater than the CG. Furthermore, lower CMASs (i.e., improved cutting movement quality) were only observed in the IG (p ≤ 0.025, g = −0.85 to −1.46, −23% to −34% vs. 6–19%) compared to the CG. The positive changes in CMASs were attributed to improved cutting technique and reduced incidences of high-risk deficits such as lateral trunk flexion, extended knee postures, knee valgus, hip internal rotation, and improved braking strategies. The results of this study indicate that COD speed and technique modification training, in addition to normal skills and strength training, improves cutting performance and movement quality in male youth soccer players. Practitioners working with male youth soccer players should implement COD speed and technique modification training to improve cutting performance and movement quality, which may decrease potential injury-risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Training, Screening and Monitoring in Soccer)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Varying Glenohumeral Joint Angle on Acute Volume Load, Muscle Activation, Swelling, and Echo-Intensity on the Biceps Brachii in Resistance-Trained Individuals
Sports 2019, 7(9), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090204 - 04 Sep 2019
Viewed by 946
Abstract
There is a paucity of data on how manipulating joint angles during isolation exercises may impact overall session muscle activation and volume load in resistance-trained individuals. We investigated the acute effects of varying glenohumeral joint angle on the biceps brachii with a crossover [...] Read more.
There is a paucity of data on how manipulating joint angles during isolation exercises may impact overall session muscle activation and volume load in resistance-trained individuals. We investigated the acute effects of varying glenohumeral joint angle on the biceps brachii with a crossover repeated measure design with three different biceps curls. One session served as the positive control (CON), which subjects performed 9 sets of bicep curls with their shoulder in a neutral position. The experimental condition (VAR), varied the glenohumeral joint angle by performing 3 sets in shoulder extension (30°), 3 sets neutral (0°), and 3 sets in flexion (90°). Volume load and muscle activation (EMG) were recorded during the training sessions. Muscle swelling and strain were assessed via muscle thickness and echo-intensity responses at pre, post, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. There were no significant differences between conditions for most dependent variables. However, the overall session EMG amplitude was significantly higher (p = 0.0001) in VAR compared to CON condition (95%-CI: 8.4% to 23.3%). Our findings suggest that varying joint angles during resistance training (RT) may enhance total muscle activation without negatively affecting volume load within a training session in resistance-trained individuals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Fitness Improvements Found after 6-Months of High Intensity Functional Training
Sports 2019, 7(9), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090203 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 753
Abstract
While short-term high intensity functional training (HIFT) effects have been established, fitness improvements from program participation exceeding 16 weeks are unknown. This study examined the effectiveness of participation in HIFT through CrossFit. During 2013–2014, fitness performance testing was incorporated into an ongoing university [...] Read more.
While short-term high intensity functional training (HIFT) effects have been established, fitness improvements from program participation exceeding 16 weeks are unknown. This study examined the effectiveness of participation in HIFT through CrossFit. During 2013–2014, fitness performance testing was incorporated into an ongoing university CrossFit program. Participants included 45 adults (23 women, 22 men) with 0–27 months of HIFT experience (grouped into 0–6 months and 7+ months). Participants completed three separate days of assessments across 10 fitness domains before and after participating in the program for six months. For each sex, 2 (Time) × 2 (Group) RANOVA were used for each fitness test. For women, significant Time effects were found for four fitness domains (i.e., flexibility, power, muscular endurance, and strength), and a Group × Time interaction for cardiorespiratory endurance, with the 0–6-month group improving more. For men, significant Time effects were found for flexibility, muscular endurance, and strength. These data provide evidence for multiple fitness improvements after six months of CrossFit participation with greater 1.5 mile run time improvement among women with less experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on High Intensity Functional Training)
Open AccessArticle
Stride and Step Length Obtained with Inertial Measurement Units during Maximal Sprint Acceleration
Sports 2019, 7(9), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090202 - 31 Aug 2019
Viewed by 407
Abstract
During sprint acceleration, step length, step rate, ground contact, and airtime are key variables for coaches to guide the training process and technical development of their athletes. In the field, three of these variables are easily obtained with inertial measurement units (IMUs), but, [...] Read more.
During sprint acceleration, step length, step rate, ground contact, and airtime are key variables for coaches to guide the training process and technical development of their athletes. In the field, three of these variables are easily obtained with inertial measurement units (IMUs), but, unfortunately, valid estimates of step length with IMUs currently are limited to low speeds (<50% max). A simple method is proposed here to derive step length during maximal sprint acceleration, using IMUs on both feet and two timing gates only. Mono-exponential velocity-time functions are fitted to the 30-m (split) and 60-m times, which in combination with IMU-derived step durations yield estimates of step length. To validate this approach, sixteen well-trained athletes with IMUs on the insteps of both feet executed two 60-m maximal sprints, starting from a three-point position. As a reference, step lengths were determined from video data. The reference step lengths combined with IMU-derived step durations yielded a time series of step velocity that confirmed the appropriateness of a mono-exponential increase of step velocity (R2 ≥ 0.96). The comparison of estimated step lengths to reference measurements showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) and acceptable agreement (root mean square error, RMSE = 8.0 cm, bias ± Limits of Agreement = −0.15 ± 16 cm). Step length estimations further improved (RMSE = 5.7 cm, −0.16 ± 11 cm) after smoothing the original estimated step lengths with a third order polynomial function (R2 = 0.94 ± 0.04). In conclusion, during maximal sprint acceleration, acceptable estimates of stride and step length were obtained from IMU-derived step times and 30-m (split) and 60-m sprint times. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diets in Male Endurance Athletes Demonstrate Different Micronutrient Contents and Changes in Corpuscular Haemoglobin over 12 Weeks
Sports 2019, 7(9), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090201 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 797
Abstract
High-carbohydrate (HC) diets and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (LCKD) are consumed by athletes for body composition and performance benefits. Little research has examined nutrient density of self-selected HC or LCKDs and consequent effect on blood haematology in an athlete population. Using a non-randomised control [...] Read more.
High-carbohydrate (HC) diets and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (LCKD) are consumed by athletes for body composition and performance benefits. Little research has examined nutrient density of self-selected HC or LCKDs and consequent effect on blood haematology in an athlete population. Using a non-randomised control intervention trial, nutrient density over 3 days, total blood count and serum ferritin, within endurance athletes following a self-selected HC (n = 11) or LCKD (n = 9) over 12 weeks, was examined. At week 12, HC diet participants had greater intakes of carbohydrate, fibre, sugar, sodium, chloride, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese and thiamine, with higher glycaemic load (GL), compared to LCKD participants (P < 0.05). LCKD participants had greater intakes of saturated fat, protein, a higher omega 3:6 ratio, selenium, vitamins A, D, E, K1, B12, B2, pantothenic acid and biotin. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) decreased in LCKD participants after 12 weeks but remained unchanged in HC participants, with no change in serum ferritin in either group. This analysis cannot examine nutrient deficiency, but athletes should be made aware of the importance of changes in dietary type on micronutrient intakes and blood haematology, especially where performance is to be considered. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of an Eight over Cricket Bowling Spell upon Pace Bowling Biomechanics and Performance within Different Delivery Lengths
Sports 2019, 7(9), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090200 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Pace bowlers must often perform extended bowling spells with maximal ball release speed (BRS) while targeting different delivery lengths when playing a multi-day match. This study investigated the effect of an eight over spell upon pace bowling biomechanics and performance at different delivery [...] Read more.
Pace bowlers must often perform extended bowling spells with maximal ball release speed (BRS) while targeting different delivery lengths when playing a multi-day match. This study investigated the effect of an eight over spell upon pace bowling biomechanics and performance at different delivery lengths. Nine male bowlers (age = 18.8 ± 1.7 years) completed an eight over spell, while targeting different lengths (short: 7–10 m, good: 4–7 m, full: 0–4 m from the batter’s stumps, respectively) in a randomized order. Trunk, knee and shoulder kinematics and ground reaction forces at front foot contact (FFC), as well as run-up velocity and BRS were measured. Paired sample t-tests (p ≤ 0.01), Hedges’ g effect sizes, and statistical parametrical mapping were used to assess differences between mean variables from the first and last three overs. No significant differences (p = 0.05–0.98) were found in any discrete or continuous variables, with the magnitude of difference being trivial-to-medium (g = 0.00–0.73) across all variables. Results suggest pace bowlers sustain BRS through a single eight over spell while tolerating the repeatedly high whole-body biomechanical loads as suggested by maintaining the kinematics or technique at the assessed joints during FFC. Practically, the findings are advantageous for bowling performance and support current bowling load monitoring practices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pre-Anticipatory Anxiety and Autonomic Nervous System Response to Two Unique Fitness Competition Workouts
Sports 2019, 7(9), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090199 - 27 Aug 2019
Viewed by 492
Abstract
To evaluate the feasibility of on-site collection of subjective anxiety, autonomic nervous system activity, and salivary catecholamines surrounding high-intensity functional training (HIFT) competition, ten experienced HIFT competitors completed baseline assessments of anxiety and heart rate variability (HRV). Then, in two consecutive weeks (Workout [...] Read more.
To evaluate the feasibility of on-site collection of subjective anxiety, autonomic nervous system activity, and salivary catecholamines surrounding high-intensity functional training (HIFT) competition, ten experienced HIFT competitors completed baseline assessments of anxiety and heart rate variability (HRV). Then, in two consecutive weeks (Workout 1 and 2) within the competition, HRV was recorded and examined in 5-min segments prior to exercise (PRE) and across a 30-min period after competitors completed their choice of the prescribed or scaled each workout. Subjective anxiety ratings and saliva samples were collected at PRE and immediately-(IP), 30-min (30P), and 60-min post-exercise (60P). Saliva samples were analyzed for concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Generalized linear mixed models with repeated measures revealed significant (p < 0.05) differences between workouts for all measures. Compared to Workout 1, anxiety (~50%), epinephrine (173–340%), norepinephrine (29–234%) were greater in Workout 2 and various HRV-derived indices were more depressed. Additionally, some HRV-derived indices appeared to be modulated (p < 0.05) by competitive level and sex at PRE and throughout the 30-min recovery period. These data suggest that autonomic activity may differ between the competitive and laboratory settings, and that the response may be further modulated by the workout’s design, the athlete’s sex, and competitive level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of an Ice Slurry-Induced Gastrointestinal Heat Sink on Gastrointestinal and Rectal Temperatures Following Exercise
Sports 2019, 7(9), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090198 - 27 Aug 2019
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgint) measurement with a telemetric pill (TP) is increasingly used in exercise science. Contact of cool water with a TP invalidates Tgint assessment. However, what effect a heat sink created in the proximity of a TP may have [...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgint) measurement with a telemetric pill (TP) is increasingly used in exercise science. Contact of cool water with a TP invalidates Tgint assessment. However, what effect a heat sink created in the proximity of a TP may have on the assessment of Tgint remains unknown. We examined the impact of an ice slurry-induced heat sink on Tgint and rectal temperature (Trec) following exercise. After 20 min of seating (20–22 °C, 25–40% relative humidity (RH)), 11 men completed two intersperse exercise periods (31–32 °C, 35% RH) at 75–80% of estimated maximal heart rate until a Trec increase of 1 °C above baseline level. Following the first exercise period, participants were seated for 45 min and ingested 7.5 g·kg−1 of thermoneutral water, whereas, following the second period, they ingested 7.5 g·kg−1 of ice slurry. Both Tgint and Trec were measured continuously. The TPs were swallowed 10 h prior to the experiments. A bias ≤0.27 °C was taken as an indication that Tgint and Trec provided similar core temperature indices. Mean biases and 95% limits of agreement during passive sitting, first exercise, water ingestion, second exercise, and ice slurry ingestion periods were 0.16 ± 0.53, 0.13 ± 0.41, 0.21 ± 0.70, 0.17 ± 0.50, and 0.18 ± 0.66 °C, respectively. The rates of decrease in Tgint and Trec did not differ between the water and ice slurry ingestion periods. Our results indicate that ice slurry ingestion following exercise does not impact TP-derived assessment of Tgint compared with Trec. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection of Physiological Parameters in Humans during Exercise)
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Open AccessEditorial
Improving Practice and Performance in Basketball
Sports 2019, 7(9), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090197 - 27 Aug 2019
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Basketball is ranked in the top three team sports for participation in the Americas, Australia, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific nations, making it one of the most popular team sports worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Practice and Performance in Basketball)
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Energy Drink Consumption on Cognitive and Physical Performance in Elite League of Legends Players
Sports 2019, 7(9), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7090196 - 22 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
To examine the cognitive and physical changes associated with consuming an energy drink concurrent to video gaming, we examined a convenience sample of nine elite League of Legends (LoL) e-sport players (21 ± 2 y, BMI 25.6 ± 3.4 kg/m2) consuming [...] Read more.
To examine the cognitive and physical changes associated with consuming an energy drink concurrent to video gaming, we examined a convenience sample of nine elite League of Legends (LoL) e-sport players (21 ± 2 y, BMI 25.6 ± 3.4 kg/m2) consuming an energy drink (ReloadTM) or placebo (Placebo) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Participants completed the same test battery prior to treatment consumption and after playing each of three competitive LoL games. Primary outcomes included measures of attention (Erikson Flanker Test), reaction time (Go/No-Go test) and working memory (n-back test). Secondary outcomes examined fatigue (hand grip strength and finger tap speed). Statistical analysis was performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and reported as the mean (standard deviation [SD]) or mean change (95% confidence interval [CI]). Participants reported sleeping 8.1 (1.2) h/night, playing LoL 10.3 (2.1) h/d, playing other video games 1.8 (2.8) h/d, and exercising 4.2 (1.7) times per week. Overall, we observed no significant time, group, or group-by-time interactions for any measured performance index with the exception of a significant improvement for the n-back test, where the Reload group demonstrated a significant within-group improvement: Reload [−171 ms (95% CI, −327.91, −14.09), p < 0.004], Placebo [−92 ms (95% CI, −213.63, 29.63)]. However, no between-group differences were noted (38.50 ms, 95% CI, −141.89, 64.89, p = 0.803). Our findings suggest that elite eSport athletes do not demonstrate a mental or physical improvement in performance relative to the treatment supplement or indices measured in this study. Full article
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