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Insects, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2015) , Pages 297-607

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Open AccessReview
Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings
Insects 2015, 6(2), 595-607; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020595
Received: 30 January 2015 / Accepted: 26 May 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3049 | PDF Full-text (105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), [...] Read more.
Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
Open AccessReview
Aedes aegypti Control Strategies in Brazil: Incorporation of New Technologies to Overcome the Persistence of Dengue Epidemics
Insects 2015, 6(2), 576-594; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020576
Received: 19 February 2015 / Revised: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4733 | PDF Full-text (1386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dengue is considered to be the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. The Aedes aegypti mosquito, its vector, is highly anthropophilic and is very well adapted to urban environments. Although several vaccine candidates are in advanced stages of development no licensed [...] Read more.
Dengue is considered to be the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. The Aedes aegypti mosquito, its vector, is highly anthropophilic and is very well adapted to urban environments. Although several vaccine candidates are in advanced stages of development no licensed dengue vaccine is yet available. As a result, controlling the spread of dengue still requires that mosquitoes be targeted directly. We review the current methods of dengue vector control focusing on recent technical advances. We first examine the history of Brazil’s National Dengue Control Plan in effect since 2002, and we describe its establishment and operation. With the persistent recurrence of dengue epidemics, current strategies should be reassessed to bring to the forefront a discussion of the possible implementation of new technologies in Brazil’s mosquito control program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control)
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Open AccessReview
Ecological Interactions Affecting the Efficacy of Aphidius colemani in Greenhouse Crops
Insects 2015, 6(2), 538-575; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020538
Received: 27 March 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3047 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid used for biological control of many economically important pest aphids. Given its widespread use, a vast array of literature on this natural enemy exists. Though often highly effective for aphid suppression, the literature reveals [...] Read more.
Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid used for biological control of many economically important pest aphids. Given its widespread use, a vast array of literature on this natural enemy exists. Though often highly effective for aphid suppression, the literature reveals that A. colemani efficacy within greenhouse production systems can be reduced by many stressors, both biotic (plants, aphid hosts, other natural enemies) and abiotic (climate and lighting). For example, effects from 3rd and 4th trophic levels (fungal-based control products, hyperparasitoids) can suddenly decimate A. colemani populations. But, the most chronic negative effects (reduced parasitoid foraging efficiency, fitness) seem to be from stressors at the first trophic level. Negative effects from the 1st trophic level are difficult to mediate since growers are usually constrained to particular plant varieties due to market demands. Major research gaps identified by our review include determining how plants, aphid hosts, and A. colemani interact to affect the net aphid population, and how production conditions such as temperature, humidity and lighting affect both the population growth rate of A. colemani and its target pest. Decades of research have made A. colemani an essential part of biological control programs in greenhouse crops. Future gains in A. colemani efficacy and aphid biological control will require an interdisciplinary, systems approach that considers plant production and climate effects at all trophic levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Eastern United States Reticulitermes Termite Species via PCR-RFLP, Assessed Using Training and Test Data
Insects 2015, 6(2), 524-537; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020524
Received: 17 April 2015 / Revised: 30 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2004 | PDF Full-text (522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Reticulitermes termites play key roles in dead wood decomposition and nutrient cycling in forests. They also damage man-made structures, resulting in considerable economic loss. In the eastern United States, five species (R. flavipes, R. virginicus, R. nelsonae, R. hageni [...] Read more.
Reticulitermes termites play key roles in dead wood decomposition and nutrient cycling in forests. They also damage man-made structures, resulting in considerable economic loss. In the eastern United States, five species (R. flavipes, R. virginicus, R. nelsonae, R. hageni and R. malletei) have overlapping ranges and are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Here we present a molecular tool for species identification. It is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a section of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene, followed by a three-enzyme restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, with banding patterns resolved via agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was designed using a large set of training data obtained from a public DNA sequence database, then evaluated using an independent test panel of Reticulitermes from the Southern Appalachian Mountains, for which species assignments were determined via phylogenetic comparison to reference sequences. After refining the interpretive framework, the PCR-RFLP assay was shown to provide accurate identification of four co-occurring species (the fifth species, R. hageni, was absent from the test panel, so accuracy cannot yet be extended to training data). The assay is cost- and time-efficient, and will help improve knowledge of Reticulitermes species distributions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predation of the Peach Aphid Myzus persicae by the mirid Predator Macrolophus pygmaeus on Sweet Peppers: Effect of Prey and Predator Density
Insects 2015, 6(2), 514-523; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020514
Received: 26 March 2015 / Revised: 19 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1982 | PDF Full-text (418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Integrated Pest Management strategies are widely implemented in sweet peppers. Aphid biological control on sweet pepers includes curative applications of parasitoids and generalist predators, but with limited efficiency. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a zoophytophagous predator which has been reported to predate on aphids, but [...] Read more.
Integrated Pest Management strategies are widely implemented in sweet peppers. Aphid biological control on sweet pepers includes curative applications of parasitoids and generalist predators, but with limited efficiency. Macrolophus pygmaeus is a zoophytophagous predator which has been reported to predate on aphids, but has traditionally been used to control other pests, including whiteflies. In this work, we evaluate the effectiveness of M. pygmaeus in controlling Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) by testing different combinations of aphid and predator densities in cage-experiments under greenhouse conditions. The impact of the presence of an alternative factitious prey (E. kuehniella eggs) was also investigated. Macrolophus pygmaeus, at densities of four individuals/plant, caused rapid decline of newly established aphid populations. When aphid infestations were heavy, the mirid bug reduced the aphid numbers but did not fully eradicate aphid populations. The availability of a factitious prey did not influence M. pygmaeus predation on aphids. Based on our data, preventive application of M. pygmaeus, along with a supplementary food source , is recommended to control early infestations of aphids. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina
Insects 2015, 6(2), 508-513; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020508
Received: 17 February 2015 / Revised: 27 May 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2070 | PDF Full-text (390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We [...] Read more.
The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Slow-Release Sachets of Neoseiulus cucumeris Predatory Mites Reduce Intraguild Predation by Dalotia coriaria in Greenhouse Biological Control Systems
Insects 2015, 6(2), 489-507; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020489
Received: 18 February 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 1 June 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2206 | PDF Full-text (440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intraguild predation of Neoseiulus cucumeris Oudemans (Phytoseiidae) by soil-dwelling predators, Dalotia coriaria Kraatz (Staphylinidae) may limit the utility of open rearing systems in greenhouse thrips management programs. We determined the rate of D. coriaria invasion of N. cucumeris breeder material presented in piles [...] Read more.
Intraguild predation of Neoseiulus cucumeris Oudemans (Phytoseiidae) by soil-dwelling predators, Dalotia coriaria Kraatz (Staphylinidae) may limit the utility of open rearing systems in greenhouse thrips management programs. We determined the rate of D. coriaria invasion of N. cucumeris breeder material presented in piles or sachets, bran piles (without mites), and sawdust piles. We also observed mite dispersal from breeder piles and sachets when D. coriaria were not present. Dalotia coriaria invaded breeder and bran piles at higher rates than sawdust piles and sachets. Furthermore, proportions of N. cucumeris in sachets were six- to eight-fold higher compared with breeder piles. When D. coriaria were absent, N. cucumeris dispersed from breeder piles and sachets for up to seven weeks. In earlier weeks, more N. cucumeris dispersed from breeder piles compared with sachets, and in later weeks more N. cucumeris dispersed from sachets compared with breeder piles. Sachets protected N. cucumeris from intraguild predation by D. coriaria resulting in higher populations of mites. Therefore, sachets should be used in greenhouse biocontrol programs that also release D. coriaria. Furthermore, breeder piles that provide “quick-releases” or sachets that provide “slow-releases” of mites should be considered when incorporating N. cucumeris into greenhouse thrips management programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
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Open AccessCommunication
Colonies of Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) Produce Fewer Workers, Less Bee Biomass, and Have Smaller Mother Queens Following Fungicide Exposure
Insects 2015, 6(2), 478-488; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020478
Received: 18 March 2015 / Revised: 22 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 1 June 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6838 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bees provide vital pollination services to the majority of flowering plants in both natural and agricultural systems. Unfortunately, both native and managed bee populations are experiencing declines, threatening the persistence of these plants and crops. Agricultural chemicals are one possible culprit contributing to [...] Read more.
Bees provide vital pollination services to the majority of flowering plants in both natural and agricultural systems. Unfortunately, both native and managed bee populations are experiencing declines, threatening the persistence of these plants and crops. Agricultural chemicals are one possible culprit contributing to bee declines. Even fungicides, generally considered safe for bees, have been shown to disrupt honey bee development and impair bumble bee behavior. Little is known, however, how fungicides may affect bumble bee colony growth. We conducted a controlled cage study to determine the effects of fungicide exposure on colonies of a native bumble bee species (Bombus impatiens). Colonies of B. impatiens were exposed to flowers treated with field-relevant levels of the fungicide chlorothalonil over the course of one month. Colony success was assessed by the number and biomass of larvae, pupae, and adult bumble bees. Bumble bee colonies exposed to fungicide produced fewer workers, lower total bee biomass, and had lighter mother queens than control colonies. Our results suggest that fungicides negatively affect the colony success of a native bumble bee species and that the use of fungicides during bloom has the potential to severely impact the success of native bumble bee populations foraging in agroecosystems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Novel Pesticides for Use against Glasshouse Invertebrate Pests in UK Tomatoes and Peppers
Insects 2015, 6(2), 464-477; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020464
Received: 2 March 2015 / Revised: 16 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2741 | PDF Full-text (989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To inform current and future pesticide availability to glasshouse vegetable growers, the current project trialled more than twenty products, including existing industry standards, against four key pests of glasshouse tomatoes and bell peppers. These included experimental conventional chemical pesticides as well as alternative [...] Read more.
To inform current and future pesticide availability to glasshouse vegetable growers, the current project trialled more than twenty products, including existing industry standards, against four key pests of glasshouse tomatoes and bell peppers. These included experimental conventional chemical pesticides as well as alternative biopesticide and biorational products based on phytochemicals, microbials and physically-acting substances. The results suggest that certain biopesticide products, particularly botanicals, provide good levels of pest control, with the same being true of experimental conventional chemical pesticides not yet recommended for use against these pests on these crops. Efforts are on-going to ensure that results of the current project translate to industry benefit via new pesticide approvals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.) Resting Preferences
Insects 2015, 6(2), 455-463; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020455
Received: 5 March 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1760 | PDF Full-text (116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given [...] Read more.
Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin) was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin). The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse
Insects 2015, 6(2), 442-454; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020442
Received: 16 February 2015 / Revised: 30 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2575 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection [...] Read more.
Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
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Open AccessReview
The Importance of Maintaining Protected Zone Status against Bemisia tabaci
Insects 2015, 6(2), 432-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020432
Received: 13 February 2015 / Revised: 22 April 2015 / Accepted: 5 May 2015 / Published: 11 May 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1870 | PDF Full-text (99 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of economically important crops worldwide. Both the United Kingdom (UK) and Finland hold Protected Zone status against this invasive pest. As a result B. tabaci entering these countries on plants and [...] Read more.
The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of economically important crops worldwide. Both the United Kingdom (UK) and Finland hold Protected Zone status against this invasive pest. As a result B. tabaci entering these countries on plants and plant produce is subjected to a policy of eradication. The impact of B. tabaci entering, and becoming established, is that it is an effective vector of many plant viruses that are not currently found in the protected zones. The Mediterranean species is the most commonly intercepted species of B. tabaci entering both the UK and Finland. The implications of maintaining Protected Zone status are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Responses in a Plant-Insect System to Fertilization by Cormorant Feces
Insects 2015, 6(2), 419-431; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020419
Received: 9 February 2015 / Revised: 12 April 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1881 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Theoretical arguments suggest that increased plant productivity may not only increase consumer densities but also their fluctuations. While increased consumer densities are commonly observed in fertilization experiments, experiments are seldom performed at a spatial and temporal scale where effects on population fluctuations may [...] Read more.
Theoretical arguments suggest that increased plant productivity may not only increase consumer densities but also their fluctuations. While increased consumer densities are commonly observed in fertilization experiments, experiments are seldom performed at a spatial and temporal scale where effects on population fluctuations may be observed. In this study we used a natural gradient in soil fertility caused by cormorant nesting. Cormorants feed on fish but defecate on their nesting islands. On these islands we studied soil nutrient availability, plant nutrient content and the density of Galerucella beetles, main herbivores feeding on Lythrum salicaria. In a common garden experiment, we followed larval development on fertilized plants and estimated larval stoichiometry. Soil nutrient availability varied among islands, and several cormorant islands had very high N and P soil content. Plant nutrient content, however, did not vary among islands, and there was no correlation between soil and plant nutrient contents. Beetle densities increased with plant nutrient content in the field study. However, there was either no effect on temporal fluctuations in beetle density or that temporal fluctuations decreased (at high P). In the common garden experiment, we found limited responses in either larval survival or pupal weights to fertilization. A possible mechanism for the limited effect of fertilization on density fluctuations may be that the distribution of L. salicaria on nesting islands was restricted to sites with a lower N and P content, presumably because high N loads are toxic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assaying Visual Memory in the Desert Locust
Insects 2015, 6(2), 409-418; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020409
Received: 19 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1821 | PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The involvement of associative learning cues has been demonstrated in several stages of feeding and food selection. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF), an insect neuropeptide whose effects on feeding behavior have previously been well established, may be one of the factors bridging feeding and [...] Read more.
The involvement of associative learning cues has been demonstrated in several stages of feeding and food selection. Short neuropeptide F (sNPF), an insect neuropeptide whose effects on feeding behavior have previously been well established, may be one of the factors bridging feeding and learning behavior. Recently, it was shown in Drosophila melanogaster that the targeted reduction of Drome-sNPF transcript levels significantly reduced sugar-rewarded olfactory memory. While Drosophila mainly relies on olfactory perception in its food searching behavior, locust foraging behavior is likely to be more visually orientated. Furthermore, a feeding-dependent regulation of Schgr-sNPF transcript levels has previously been observed in the optic lobes of the locust brain, suggesting a possible involvement in visual perception of food and visual associative memory in this insect species. In this study, we describe the development of a robust and reproducible assay allowing visual associative memory to be studied in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Furthermore, we performed an exploratory series of experiments, studying the role of Schgr-sNPF in this complex process. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
The Rise and Demise of Integrated Pest Management in Rice in Indonesia
Insects 2015, 6(2), 381-408; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020381
Received: 17 December 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2525 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indonesia’s 11-year (1989–1999) National Integrated Pest Management Program was a spectacularly successful example of wide-scale adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) principles and practice in a developing country. This program introduced the innovative Farmer Field School model of agro-ecosystem-based experiential learning, subsequently adapted [...] Read more.
Indonesia’s 11-year (1989–1999) National Integrated Pest Management Program was a spectacularly successful example of wide-scale adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) principles and practice in a developing country. This program introduced the innovative Farmer Field School model of agro-ecosystem-based experiential learning, subsequently adapted to different crops and agricultural systems in countries throughout the world. Since the termination of the program in 1999, Indonesia has undergone profound changes as the country enters a new era of democratic reform. Government support for the national IPM program has wavered during this period, and pesticide producers and traders have taken advantage of the policy vacuum to mount an aggressive marketing campaign in the countryside. These factors have contributed to a reappearance of the pesticide-induced resurgent pest problems that led to the establishment of the National IPM Program in the first place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
Open AccessArticle
Tissue-Specific Immune Gene Expression in the Migratory Locust, Locusta Migratoria
Insects 2015, 6(2), 368-380; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020368
Received: 3 March 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2397 | PDF Full-text (230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of hosts to respond to infection involves several complex immune recognition pathways. Broadly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) allow individuals to target a range of invading microbes. Recently, studies on insect innate immunity have found evidence that a single pathogen can [...] Read more.
The ability of hosts to respond to infection involves several complex immune recognition pathways. Broadly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) allow individuals to target a range of invading microbes. Recently, studies on insect innate immunity have found evidence that a single pathogen can activate different immune pathways across species. In this study, expression changes in immune genes encoding peptidoglycan-recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA), gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1) and prophenoloxidase (ProPO) were investigated in Locusta migratoria, following an immune challenge using injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS) solution from Escherichia coli. Since immune activation might also be tissue-specific, gene expression levels were followed across a range of tissue types. For PGRP-SA, expression increased in response to LPS within all seven of the tissue-types assayed and differed significantly between tissues. Expression of GNBP1 similarly varied across tissue types, yet showed no clear expression difference between LPS-injected and uninfected locusts. Increases in ProPO expression in response to LPS, however, could only be detected in the gut sections. This study has revealed tissue-specific immune response to add a new level of complexity to insect immune studies. In addition to variation in recognition pathways identified in previous works, tissue-specificity should be carefully considered in similar works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasite-Insect Interactions)
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Open AccessReview
Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management
Insects 2015, 6(2), 352-367; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020352
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 1 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
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Abstract
The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest [...] Read more.
The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia
Insects 2015, 6(2), 333-351; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020333
Received: 24 December 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
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Abstract
Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of [...] Read more.
Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 102 to 109) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 ´ 107 spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
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Open AccessReview
Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies
Insects 2015, 6(2), 325-332; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020325
Received: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 20 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
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Abstract
Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being [...] Read more.
Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Glasshouses)
Open AccessArticle
Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
Insects 2015, 6(2), 319-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020319
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2109 | PDF Full-text (130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (BMSB) is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, [...] Read more.
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (BMSB) is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA) as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
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Open AccessReview
An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region
Insects 2015, 6(2), 297-318; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6020297
Received: 10 March 2015 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 25 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 3661 | PDF Full-text (2500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and [...] Read more.
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
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