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Open AccessArticle

Detection of Lower Albuminuria Levels and Early Development of Diabetic Kidney Disease Using an Artificial Intelligence-Based Rule Extraction Approach

Department of Computer Science, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki 214-8571, Japan
Diagnostics 2019, 9(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040133
Received: 20 August 2019 / Revised: 21 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 29 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in Diagnostics)
The aim of the present study was to determine the lowest cut-off value for albuminuria levels, which can be used to detect diabetic kidney disease (DKD) using the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for US adults were used, and participants were classified as having diabetes or prediabetes based on a self-report and physiological measures. The study dataset comprised 942 diabetes and 524 prediabetes samples. This study clarified the significance of the lower albuminuria (UACR) levels, which can detect DKD, using an artificial intelligence-based rule extraction approach. The diagnostic rules (15 concrete rules) for both samples were extracted using a recursive-rule eXtraction (Re-RX) algorithm with continuous attributes (continuous Re-RX) to discriminate between prediabetes and diabetes datasets. Continuous Re-RX showed high test accuracy (77.56%) and a large area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (75%), which derived the two cut-off values (6.1 mg/g Cr and 71.00 mg/g Cr) for the lower albuminuria level in the UACR to detect early development of DKD. The early cut-off values for normoalbuminuria (NA) and microalbuminuria (MA) will be determined to help detect CKD and DKD, and to detect diabetes before MA develop and to prevent diabetic complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetic kidney disease; microalbuminuria; normoalbuminuria; cut-off; artificial intelligence; rule extraction diabetic kidney disease; microalbuminuria; normoalbuminuria; cut-off; artificial intelligence; rule extraction
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Hayashi, Y. Detection of Lower Albuminuria Levels and Early Development of Diabetic Kidney Disease Using an Artificial Intelligence-Based Rule Extraction Approach. Diagnostics 2019, 9, 133.

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