Next Article in Journal
A Pervasive Healthcare System for COPD Patients
Previous Article in Journal
Detection of Lower Albuminuria Levels and Early Development of Diabetic Kidney Disease Using an Artificial Intelligence-Based Rule Extraction Approach
Open AccessArticle

Multivariate Comparison of Cytokine Profiles for Normal- and Low-Bone-Density Subjects

Centre for Applied Mathematics and Bioinformatics, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gulf University for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 7207, Hawally 32093, Kuwait
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2019, 9(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040134
Received: 4 August 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 25 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
Osteoporosis is a serious worldwide public health concern. The role of the immune system in the onset of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women is an area of current research. Here we study data from a panel of 10 cytokines obtained from postmenopausal women, with both normal and low bone mineral density (BMD). Normal- and low-BMD groups are compared and contrasted, and further low-BMD participants are sub-classified into osteopenic and osteoporotic based on BMD levels, and compared to each other. Via the use of multivariate statistical tools, we examine contrasting groups in relation to: (a) the presence of subgroups/clusters; (b) whether groups have statistically different multivariate distributions; (c) how strongly groups differ (if at all), which relates to the practical/clinical significant of any differences; and (d) which cytokines contribute most to any differences between groups. We find that the normal- vs. low-BMD groups are markedly different (p-value = 0.00013), with IL-23, IL-12, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-6 being the most important differentiating cytokines. No significant difference between the osteopenic and osteoporotic groups is found (p-value = 0.81). These findings may aid the development of cytokine therapies for osteoporosis, and suggest the use of certain cytokine profiles as biomarkers for osteoporosis risk factors, and ways to quantify the progress of treatment therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokines; osteoporosis; biomarkers; multivariate data analysis cytokines; osteoporosis; biomarkers; multivariate data analysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Dingle, K.; Azizieh, F. Multivariate Comparison of Cytokine Profiles for Normal- and Low-Bone-Density Subjects. Diagnostics 2019, 9, 134.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop