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Minerals, Volume 14, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 105 articles

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17 pages, 4445 KiB  
Article
Paleoredox Conditions, Paleoproductivity, and Terrigenous Sediment Influx of the Lower-Middle Cenomanian Strata in the Abu Gharadig Basin, Northern Egypt
by Ahmed Mansour, Michael Wagreich, Sameh S. Tahoun, Mohamed S. Ahmed and Thomas Gentzis
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060632 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 256
Abstract
During the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian), significant disruptions in the carbon cycle, global warming, and episodes of oceanic anoxia occurred, leading to the deposition of organic carbon-rich sediments. In well BED2-3, located in the BED2 gas field within the Abu Gharadig Basin (north Western [...] Read more.
During the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian), significant disruptions in the carbon cycle, global warming, and episodes of oceanic anoxia occurred, leading to the deposition of organic carbon-rich sediments. In well BED2-3, located in the BED2 gas field within the Abu Gharadig Basin (north Western Desert, Egypt), the lower-to-middle Cenomanian Bahariya Formation displays thick alternating layers of sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Detailed geochemical analyses were conducted on thirty-three cutting samples from the Bahariya Formation, focusing on total organic carbon (TOC), whole-rock elemental geochemistry, and carbonate content. These geochemical measurements provided valuable information regarding paleoredox conditions, marine biological productivity, terrigenous sediment influx, weathering and paleoclimate conditions, and mechanisms influencing organic matter accumulation. The enrichment factors (EF) of redox-sensitive trace elements were utilized to infer oxygenation conditions and marine biological productivity during the deposition of the Bahariya Formation. The stratigraphic distribution of redox-sensitive elements allowed for the Bahariya Formation to be categorized into lower and middle-upper intervals. The results revealed that the lower interval exhibited strong-to-enriched EF values of redox-sensitive elements and fair-to-rich TOC content, indicating a prevalent anoxic setting during deposition. In contrast, the middle-upper interval displayed weakly-to-slightly enriched EF values with poor-to-fair TOC content, suggesting deposition under oxic-suboxic redox conditions. By examining Al-normalized redox-sensitive ratios and their correlations with TOC content, significant relationships were observed in the lower interval, indicating a coupling between the enrichment of redox-sensitive elements and organic matter. This suggests enhanced biological productivity during deposition of the lower interval compared to the relatively low productivity during deposition of the middle-upper interval of the formation. These conditions controlled the production and preservation of organic matter in the lower interval, while the middle-upper interval suffered from organic matter dilution and destruction due to an increased influx of terrigenous material and lower biological productivity. Geochemical proxies related to detrital materials provided evidence of alternating terrigenous sediment flux, consistent with shifts between coarse- and fine-grained fractions and related facies of sandstones, siltstones, and shales. These findings align with active continental weathering in the source terrane and deposition under enhanced warm-humid climatic conditions, with intermittent arid-to-semi-arid phases. These conclusions are further supported by the palynomorph assemblages and clay mineralogy within the Bahariya Formation. Full article
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21 pages, 4180 KiB  
Article
Mineralogical Method as an Effective Way to Predict Gold Ore Types of Deposits in Platform Areas (East of the Siberian Platform)
by Zinaida Nikiforova
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060631 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 221
Abstract
The study of the mineralogical and geochemical features of placer gold and the mechanisms of its distribution in the territory east of the Siberian platform, overlain by a thick cover of Mesozoic–Cenozoic deposits, where traditional methods of searching for gold fields are not [...] Read more.
The study of the mineralogical and geochemical features of placer gold and the mechanisms of its distribution in the territory east of the Siberian platform, overlain by a thick cover of Mesozoic–Cenozoic deposits, where traditional methods of searching for gold fields are not effective, allowed researchers, for the first time, to establish the stages of ore formation and to predict the types of gold deposits and their location. The identified indicators of placer gold (morphology, granulometry, chemical composition, micro-inclusions, and internal structures) indicate that ore occurrences in both the Precambrian and Mesozoic stages of ore formation were primary sources of placer gold. The identification of characteristic indicators in placer gold for certain types of gold deposits allowed researchers to prove the formation of gold ore sources east of the Siberian platform for the first time: low-sulfide quartz gold, gold–ferruginous quartzite, gold–copper–porphyry, and gold–platinoid formations are found in the Precambrian stage of ore formation and gold–silver, gold–sulfide–quartz, and gold–rare metal formations are found in the Mesozoic stages of ore formation. Thus, for the first time, based on a huge amount of factual material, it is proved that the mineralogical and geochemical features of placer gold carry enormous information about both the endogenous origin of gold (stages of ore formation—Precambrian and Mesozoic) and the expected type of formation of the predicted deposits. It is established that the predicted type of ore sources corresponds to a certain geological and structural position; this contributes to a more correct selection of methods for searching for ore and placer gold deposits in closed territories and assessing their prospects. In general, the application of the mineralogical method for the first time makes it possible to develop criteria for predicting resources and types of gold deposits, and to assess the prospects of gold mining potential in platform areas at a new level of knowledge. Full article
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21 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Discrete Element Modeling of the Breakage of Single Polyhedral Particles in the Rotary Offset Crusher
by Titus Nghipulile, Mulenga Murray Bwalya, Indresan Govender and Henry Simonsen
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060630 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Innovation in comminution is expected to continue unabated to address the inefficiencies that are inherent in comminution circuits. The rotary offset crusher (ROC) is a new comminution device with a promising performance potential in terms of throughput due to the enhanced speed of [...] Read more.
Innovation in comminution is expected to continue unabated to address the inefficiencies that are inherent in comminution circuits. The rotary offset crusher (ROC) is a new comminution device with a promising performance potential in terms of throughput due to the enhanced speed of transportation induced by the centrifugal force of the discs. However, the processes driving the comminution of particles trapped in the conical space between the two discs of the crusher are not fully understood. To gain a better insight into the comminution process in this device, discrete element modeling (DEM) simulations were conducted to study the breakage of a single particle for the crusher operated under two different dynamic conditions, i.e., (1) a stationary top disc and (2) both discs rotating at the same speed. For both scenarios, the speed of the discs was varied between 550 and 2350 rpm. Experimental testwork was also conducted with the laboratory prototype to generate the data that were used to calibrate the breakage parameters of the Ab × t10 breakage model. Simulations were performed using polyhedral UG2 ore particles that were generated with the in-built particle generator in the DEM simulator. The simulated ROC, which is operated with both discs rotating, outperformed the ROC with a stationary top disc in terms of the specific input energy and throughput. The crusher with a stationary top disc is characterized by high shear forces (suggesting a higher wear rate), specific input energies greater than 1 kWh/t, and low throughputs (<50 kg/h). The ROC operated with a stationary disc is not recommended for hard rock applications due to expected excessive wear of crushing surfaces and higher energy consumption. The freewheeling discs are recommended, but there is scope to optimize the crusher performance in terms of the power draw, size reduction, and throughput by manipulating the difference between the speeds of the discs. There is also scope to optimize the crusher performance when it is simulated with many particles. Once the full performance potential of the ROC is established, it will then be important to benchmark it against the existing crushers in the minerals industry as well as other industries where crushers are used. Full article
25 pages, 3064 KiB  
Review
The Catalytic Potential of Modified Clays: A Review
by Altantuya Ochirkhuyag and Jadambaa Temuujin
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060629 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 573
Abstract
The need for innovative catalysts and catalytic support materials is continually growing due to demanding requirements, stricter environmental demands, and the ongoing development of new chemical processes. Since about 80% of all industrial processes involve catalysts, there is a continuing need to develop [...] Read more.
The need for innovative catalysts and catalytic support materials is continually growing due to demanding requirements, stricter environmental demands, and the ongoing development of new chemical processes. Since about 80% of all industrial processes involve catalysts, there is a continuing need to develop new catalyst materials and supports with suitable qualities to meet ongoing industrial demands. Not only must new catalysts have tailored properties, but they must also be suitable for large-scale production through environmentally friendly and cost-effective processes. Clay minerals, with their rich history in medicine and ceramics, are now emerging as potential catalysts. Their transformative potential is exemplified in applications such as hydrogenating the greenhouse gas CO2 into carbohydrate fuel, a crucial step in meeting the rising electrical demand. Moreover, advanced materials derived from clay minerals are proving their mettle in diverse photocatalytic reactions, from organic dye removal to pharmaceutical pollutant elimination and photocatalytic energy conversion through water splitting. Clay minerals in their natural state show a low catalytic activity, so to increase their reactivity, they must be activated. Depending on the requirements of a particular application, selecting an appropriate activation method for modifying a natural clay mineral is a critical consideration. Traditional clay mineral processing methods such as acid or alkaline treatment are used. Still, these have drawbacks such as high costs, long processing times, and the formation of hazardous by-products. Other activation processes, such as ultrasonication and mechanical activation routes, have been proposed to reduce the production of hazardous by-products. The main advantage of ultrasonication and microwave-assisted procedures is that they save time, whereas mechanochemical processing is simple and efficient. This short review focuses on modifying clay minerals using various new methods to create sophisticated and innovative new materials. Recent advances in catalytic reactions are specifically covered, including organic biogeochemical processes, photocatalytic processes, carbon nanotube synthesis, and energy conversion processes such as CO2 hydrogenation and dry reforming of methane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clays and Engineered Mineral Materials)
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12 pages, 4631 KiB  
Article
Surface Wettability Analysis from Adsorption Energy and Surface Electrical Charge
by Chen Zhang, Xuming Wang, Lixia Li, Jan D. Miller and Jiaqi Jin
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060628 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Surface wettability is determined by the attraction of a liquid phase to a solid surface. It is typically quantified by using contact angle measurements at mineral surfaces in the case of the flotation of mineral particles. Contact angle research to describe wettability has [...] Read more.
Surface wettability is determined by the attraction of a liquid phase to a solid surface. It is typically quantified by using contact angle measurements at mineral surfaces in the case of the flotation of mineral particles. Contact angle research to describe wettability has been investigated at different scales by sessile drop measurements, molecular dynamic simulation, and atomic force microscopy. In this study, the density functional theory (DFT) was employed for predicting the surface free energy and contact angles of a well-known hydrophobic phyllosilicate mineral talc and a well-known hydrophilic phyllosilicate mineral muscovite based on the calculated interfacial energy and surface charge. The results revealed that the predicted contact angle at the atomic scale was larger than the experimental value, and identified two interactions: electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding, between the hydrophilic muscovite surface and the water layer, while a water-exclusion zone of 3.346 Å was found between the hydrophobic talc surface and the first water layer. This investigation gives a new perspective for wettability determination at the atomic scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy)
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10 pages, 4839 KiB  
Communication
Identifying Minerals from Image Using Out-of-Distribution Artificial Intelligence-Based Model
by Xiaohui Ji, Kaiwen Liang, Yang Yang, Mei Yang, Mingyue He, Zhaochong Zhang, Shan Zeng and Yuzhu Wang
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060627 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Deep learning has increasingly been used to identify minerals. However, deep learning can only be used to identify minerals within the distribution of the training set, while any mineral outside the spectrum of the training set is inevitably categorized erroneously within a predetermined [...] Read more.
Deep learning has increasingly been used to identify minerals. However, deep learning can only be used to identify minerals within the distribution of the training set, while any mineral outside the spectrum of the training set is inevitably categorized erroneously within a predetermined class from the training set. To solve this problem, this study introduces the approach that combines a One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM) with the ResNet architecture for out-of-distribution mineral detection. Initially, ResNet undergoes training using a training set comprising well-defined minerals. Subsequently, the first two layers obtained from the trained ResNet are employed to extract the discriminative features of the mineral under consideration. These extracted mineral features then become the input for OCSVM. When OCSVM discerns the mineral in the training set’s distribution, it triggers the subsequent layers within the trained ResNet, facilitating the accurate classification of the mineral into one of the predefined categories encompassing the known minerals. In the event that OCSVM identifies a mineral outside of the training set’s distribution, it is categorized as an unclassified or ‘unknown’ mineral. Empirical results substantiate the method’s capability to identify out-of-distribution minerals while concurrently maintaining a commendably high accuracy rate for the classification of the 36 in-distribution minerals. Full article
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11 pages, 1954 KiB  
Article
Sulfur Isotope Characteristics in the Qian-34 Section of the Qianjiang Depression and Its Implications for the Paleoenvironment
by Tianyu Wang, Ren Wei, Kun Ling and Lin Dong
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060626 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Pyrite is an important proxy used to reflect the redox state of a sedimentary environment. Currently available studies on pyrite focus on the process of sulfur cycles between an ocean and sediment. However, our understanding of the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur in terrestrial [...] Read more.
Pyrite is an important proxy used to reflect the redox state of a sedimentary environment. Currently available studies on pyrite focus on the process of sulfur cycles between an ocean and sediment. However, our understanding of the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur in terrestrial lake basins remains unclear, and the growth patterns of different types of pyrite are poorly understood. In this paper, we used samples from the 34 section of the Qianjiang depression in the Jianghan Basin as direct research objects by combining pyrite and sulfur isotope determination. The one-dimensional diffusion–advection–reaction simulation (1D-DAR) model was applied to simulate the changes in the pyrite content and sulfur isotope values in the sediment. The results show that the sediments in the saline lake basin environment contain a high organic matter content, a high sedimentation rate, and a high H2S diffusion oxidation rate, reflecting the strong reducing background and high productivity of this ancient lake. Sensitivity tests revealed that the organic matter content and H2S diffusion oxidation rate at the sediment–water interface are sensitive to the pyrite content. The sedimentation rate, organic matter content, and sulfate concentration are sensitive to the pyrite’s sulfur isotope values. However, the variation in the active iron content had little effect on the pyrite content or sulfur isotope value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfide Mineralogy and Geochemistry)
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18 pages, 1834 KiB  
Article
Precipitation of Precious Metals Concentrates from Post-Elution Solutions from Ion-Exchange Processes
by Karolina Goc, Joanna Kluczka, Grzegorz Benke, Joanna Malarz, Karolina Pianowska and Katarzyna Leszczyńska-Sejda
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060625 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 184
Abstract
Precious metals have long been considered as critical raw materials in many countries. There is a growing emphasis on recovering these metals from secondary sources such as automotive catalysts or WEEE (waste of electrical and electronic equipment). During the leaching process of these [...] Read more.
Precious metals have long been considered as critical raw materials in many countries. There is a growing emphasis on recovering these metals from secondary sources such as automotive catalysts or WEEE (waste of electrical and electronic equipment). During the leaching process of these materials, solutions with low concentrations of precious metals are obtained, which necessitates the use of ion-exchange methods. Following sorption and elution, a post-elution solution called eluate is produced, containing precious metals and no impurities. This eluate must undergo further processing to obtain pure metals or its compounds. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of recovering precious metals from post-elution solutions through cementation, reduction, precipitation, or refining techniques. The analysis of the research results indicated that metallic zinc powder is the most effective cementing agent for platinum, palladium, rhodium, and gold. Metallic aluminum and copper powders can selectively cement gold and palladium, separating them from platinum and rhodium. Aqueous hydrazine hydrate solution is the best-reducing agent for precious metals, while an aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution can selectively reduce platinum and palladium, separating them from gold and rhodium. Full article
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24 pages, 8361 KiB  
Article
Temperature Perturbation Infrared Spectroscopy of Minerals
by Heidi F. Noneman and Robert L. White
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060624 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 389
Abstract
A new method for variable temperature infrared spectroscopy studies of minerals is presented. A sample heating/cooling apparatus incorporating a modified button sample holder with thermoelectric temperature control is described. By employing different programs to heat and cool samples with temperatures varying in different [...] Read more.
A new method for variable temperature infrared spectroscopy studies of minerals is presented. A sample heating/cooling apparatus incorporating a modified button sample holder with thermoelectric temperature control is described. By employing different programs to heat and cool samples with temperatures varying in different ways, various aspects of mineral powders are investigated. Infrared spectroscopy methodologies for identifying sample structural changes as a function of temperature are described. The results obtained for a variety of minerals are provided as examples. The high precision and accuracy of this approach permit the detection of subtle crystallographic unit cell distortions as a function of temperature. A < 0.25% reduction in O-H stretching vibration band intensity associated with water desorption from a quartz sample is observed at 150 °C. By employing step temperature heating profiles, reversible and irreversible sample changes can be distinguished. Variable temperature infrared spectroscopy analyses demonstrate the utility of the technique for profiling sample dehydration processes and for elucidating interactions between mineral functionalities and absorbates as a function of temperature. Full article
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11 pages, 1094 KiB  
Article
Effect of Microwave Irradiation on Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of Minerals
by Zhiqiang Zhang, Qi Zhang, Guanqi Zou and Fangfang Chen
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060623 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Microwave-assisted rock breaking is a new and promising technology for the tunneling and drilling industry. Minerals in rocks have an important influence on the effect of microwave-assisted rock breaking. In this paper, common minerals in rocks such as potash feldspar (hereafter referred to [...] Read more.
Microwave-assisted rock breaking is a new and promising technology for the tunneling and drilling industry. Minerals in rocks have an important influence on the effect of microwave-assisted rock breaking. In this paper, common minerals in rocks such as potash feldspar (hereafter referred to as K-feldspar), calcite and pyroxene were selected as samples, and a lot of microwave irradiation tests were carried out by using a hamilab-v1500 microwave oven. The mass, strength and microstructure of the rock samples were tested before and after microwave irradiation. The change law of the mineral mass, strength and microstructure with regard to temperature was analyzed, and the influence mechanism was discussed. The results show that the strength of K-feldspar increases from 20 °C to 400 °C but decreases significantly when it is higher than 400 °C; the strength of pyroxene increases from 20 °C to 600 °C but decreases when it is higher than 600 °C; the strength of calcite decreases with the increase in temperature. As for the weakening pattern, pyroxene shows drawstring, step and flow with the increase in temperature, but K-feldspar and calcite show that failure occurs along the cleavage plane of the crystal structure. The higher the temperature of microwave irradiation, the finer the pattern at the fractured zone is, and the more fragmented it becomes; the loss of mineral mass increases with the increase in the temperature of microwave irradiation. Full article
19 pages, 5698 KiB  
Article
Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.3 Ga) A-Type Granites on the Northern Margin of the North China Craton: Response to Break-Up of the Columbia Supercontinent
by Bo Liu, Shengkai Jin, Guanghao Tian, Liyang Li, Yueqiang Qin, Zhiyuan Xie, Ming Ma and Jiale Yin
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060622 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.3 Ga) magmatism in the North China Craton (NCC) was dominated by mafic intrusions (dolerite sills) with lesser amounts of granitic magmatism, but our lack of knowledge of this magmatism hinders our understanding of the evolution of the NCC during this [...] Read more.
Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.3 Ga) magmatism in the North China Craton (NCC) was dominated by mafic intrusions (dolerite sills) with lesser amounts of granitic magmatism, but our lack of knowledge of this magmatism hinders our understanding of the evolution of the NCC during this period. This study investigated porphyritic granites from the Huade–Kangbao area on the northern margin of the NCC. Zircon dating indicates the porphyritic granites were intruded during the Mesoproterozoic between 1285.4 ± 2.6 and 1278.6 ± 6.1 Ma. The granites have high silica contents (SiO2 = 63.10–73.73 wt.%), exhibit alkali enrichment (total alkalis = 7.71–8.79 wt.%), are peraluminous, and can be classified as weakly peraluminous A2-type granites. The granites have negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.14–0.44), enrichments in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., K, Rb, Th, and U), and depletions in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti). εHf(t) values range from –6.43 to +2.41, with tDM2 ages of 1905–2462 Ma, suggesting the magmas were derived by partial melting of ancient crustal material. The geochronological and geochemical data, and regional geological features, indicate the Mesoproterozoic porphyritic granites from the northern margin of the NCC formed in an intraplate tectonic setting during continental extension and rifting, which represents the response of the NCC to the break-up of the Columbia supercontinent. Full article
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18 pages, 4446 KiB  
Article
Major, Trace and Rare Earth Elements Geochemistry of Bottom Sediments in the Retiro Baixo Reservoir after the B1 Tailings Dam Rupture, Paraopeba River (Brazil)
by Diego S Sardinha, Mateus Sala Pinto, Paulo Henrique Bretanha Junker Menezes, Gunther Brucha, Jéssica Teixeira Silveira, Letícia Hirata Godoy, Deivid Arimatea Saldanha de Melo and Fernando Verassani Laureano
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060621 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 246
Abstract
The rupture of an iron mining tailing dam in Brumadinho, Brazil, released around 10 million cubic meters of tailings, of which 1.6 Mm3 reached the Paraopeba River. In this work, a total of 30 samples from three bottom sediment cores were collected [...] Read more.
The rupture of an iron mining tailing dam in Brumadinho, Brazil, released around 10 million cubic meters of tailings, of which 1.6 Mm3 reached the Paraopeba River. In this work, a total of 30 samples from three bottom sediment cores were collected in the lower course of the Paraopeba River basin and analyzed for major, trace and rare earth elements by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The sediments presented a range of compositions with different weathering histories, overall marked by depleted Ca2+, Na+ and K+ compared with the average UCC, PAAS and NASC and some advanced weathering trends. The samples presented a fractionation pattern characterized by a continuous depletion of light REEs from La to Sm and a regular decreased distribution of heavy REEs from Gd to Yb, and the Co/Th vs. La/Sc diagram indicates a predominant intermediate source. The upper samples presented the highest contents of REEs, probably due to the higher presence of iron and aluminum oxides and hydroxides, which can be related to more advanced weathering. The Al, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Co, Mn, Ti, Fe and Si concentrations and the CF, EF and Igeo index values varied across the sediment core samples, demonstrating that there were long periods of geogenic or anthropogenic contributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Weathering Studies)
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22 pages, 6011 KiB  
Article
Petrological, Geochemical, and Mineralogical Characterization of Three Coal Seams of the Imaloto Basin, Southwestern Madagascar
by Moses Babila Ndasi, Nicola Jane Wagner and Richard Viljoen
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060620 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 224
Abstract
There is a lack of published literature on coal deposits in Madagascar. The Imaloto Basin is a sub-basin of the Morondava Basin, Southwestern Madagascar, and hosts the Sakoa Coal Measures. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the petrography, [...] Read more.
There is a lack of published literature on coal deposits in Madagascar. The Imaloto Basin is a sub-basin of the Morondava Basin, Southwestern Madagascar, and hosts the Sakoa Coal Measures. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the petrography, geochemistry, and mineralogy of coal deposits hosted in the Imaloto Basin. Three coal seams (from the bottom: Main Seam, Upper Seam, and Top Seam) were intersected during a drilling program conducted by the Lemur Holdings in 2019. Coal samples were characterized using organic petrography (type and rank determination); the ash chemistry was assessed (XRF), and the mineralogy was considered using X-ray diffraction. The depositional environment at the time of peat accumulation was considered. The Main Seam samples are of better quality compared to the Upper Seam and Top Seam samples in terms of calorific value (CV) and ash yield. The coals are borderline Sub-bituminous Low Rank A to Bituminous Medium Rank D. An abundance of inertinite macerals was determined in the Main Seam, while the Upper and Top Seams are more vitrinite-rich. An unusual mineral, possibly albite or analcime, was determined in samples with a high Na content. The Imaloto coal samples show varied depositional settings (dry forest swamp, wet forest swamp, and piedmont plain), which influences coal quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Deposits)
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12 pages, 746 KiB  
Article
Concentration Plants of Construction and Demolition Waste for Coarse Aggregate Recycling
by Carlos Hoffmann Sampaio, Carlos Otávio Petter, Luisa de Freitas Sampaio, Josep Oliva Moncunill, Weslei Monteiro Ambrós and Artur Bressanelli Teixeira
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060619 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 191
Abstract
This paper presents simulations of different concentration plants that use Inert Construction and Demolition Waste as feed to generate coarse aggregates from old concretes. Different feed materials were studied: CDW generated in Spain; low-strength concretes, C16/20, which are ordinary concrete used in civil [...] Read more.
This paper presents simulations of different concentration plants that use Inert Construction and Demolition Waste as feed to generate coarse aggregates from old concretes. Different feed materials were studied: CDW generated in Spain; low-strength concretes, C16/20, which are ordinary concrete used in civil construction; and high-strength concretes, C50/60, from specific demolitions, such as old viaducts and bridges. Granulometric and densimetric analyses were performed, and the composition of the granulometric fractions of the proposed concretes were analyzed based on previous studies carried out, to understand the materials that can be recovered and considered for reinvestment in the market. Investment analysis considering the CAPEX, OPEX, revenue, IRR, MIRR, NPV, and DPP of the different concentrating plants with varying streams of concentration to recover the materials of interest (coarse aggregates) are presented and discussed. The results of the analyses indicate greater viability in plants that use mobile plants and the use of water jigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy)
18 pages, 20884 KiB  
Article
Effect of Al Substitution on Visible Short-Wave Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (VSWIR) of Goethite and Ferrihydrite
by Keyan Chen, Xiaorong Qin, Jingwen Zhou, Wei Tan, Xiaoliang Liang, Hongping He, Jianxi Zhu, Mengqi Han and Lianying Luo
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060618 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Goethite and ferrihydrite are the two major iron hydroxides, essential mineral constituents in the terrestrial surface system. Aluminum (Al) is the most common substituent in iron hydroxides, and it may significantly change the bulk and surficial physicochemical properties of iron hydroxides. Consequently, a [...] Read more.
Goethite and ferrihydrite are the two major iron hydroxides, essential mineral constituents in the terrestrial surface system. Aluminum (Al) is the most common substituent in iron hydroxides, and it may significantly change the bulk and surficial physicochemical properties of iron hydroxides. Consequently, a practical and convenient approach is needed to efficiently identify the Al substitution degrees of iron hydroxides in natural occurrences. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the VSWIR characteristics of laboratory-synthesized Al-substituted goethite and ferrihydrite, to establish diagnostic VSWIR parameters for the identification and quantification of Al substitution levels in iron hydroxides. The findings revealed that Al substitution can affect the band positions (P) of goethite and ferrihydrite at ~650 nm, ~900 nm, and ~1400 nm. The relationships between the Al substitution of ferrihydrite and VSWIR parameters can be expressed as P900 = −0.43 × Al(%) + 931 and P1400 = −0.07 × Al(%) + 1428, while that of goethite can be expressed as P650 = 0.42 × Al(%) + 657 and P900 = 2.29 × Al(%) + 936. The peak fitting results showed that the absorption intensity at 480–550 nm linearly decreases with increased Al substitution. The obtained VSWIR spectra of Al-substituted goethite and ferrihydrite provide a critical supplement to the spectral library for (Al) iron hydroxides, and these VSWIR parameters can be utilized for the semi-quantitative determination of Al substitution in natural iron hydroxides Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Evolution and Mineralization during Weathering)
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19 pages, 5912 KiB  
Article
Study of Pore–Throat Structure in Tight Triassic Sandstone: A Case Study on the Late Triassic Yanchang Formation, Southwestern Ordos Basin, China
by Hui Xiao, Haonan Wang, Yao Ning, Xiaoli Ma and Shuai Yin
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060617 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 222
Abstract
In order to better understand pore–throat structure characteristics, the coupling relationship between micropore–throat structure and macro reservoir quality and influencing factors caused by authigenic minerals were studied. Petrographic analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pressure-controlled mercury injection (PMI), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray [...] Read more.
In order to better understand pore–throat structure characteristics, the coupling relationship between micropore–throat structure and macro reservoir quality and influencing factors caused by authigenic minerals were studied. Petrographic analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pressure-controlled mercury injection (PMI), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed on a suite of tight reservoir samples from the Chang 8 Member of the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation in the southwestern Ordos Basin, China. The results show that the pore–throat sizes obtained with the combination of PMI and NMR methods varied from nano- to microscale, revealing pore–throat sizes ranging from 0.001 μm to 70 μm, and showing that pore–throats with a radius larger than 1.0 μm are rare. Larger pore–throats with good connectivity (>rapex) account for a smaller part of the total pore volume, ranging from approximately 7.58% to 38.90% with an average of 22.77%, but account for more than 80% of contributions to permeability. The effective movable fluid porosity (φemp) measured by NMR, ranging from approximately 0.10% to 7.07% with an average of 2.56%, had a positive contribution to permeability. The contents of chlorite occurrence state, other than illite, are beneficial to pore–throat preservation. A new reservoir evaluation scheme of the Chang 8 reservoir is established. These research results provide a theoretical basis for the evaluation and development of tight sandstone oil and gas exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Exploration Methods and Applications)
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20 pages, 13649 KiB  
Article
Zircon U-Pb Dating, Geochemistry, Lu-Hf Isotope Characteristics, and Geological Significance of Volcanic Rocks in Zhenghe Fozi Mountain National Geopark, Fujian, China
by Nan Chen, Dunpeng Li, Yanna Huang, Yihang Fu, Xiaomin Yang and Hanbin Wang
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060616 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Fozi Mountain National Geopark is located in Zhenghe County in the northern region of Fujian Province, where the volcanic rocks of the Zhaixia Formation of the Shimaoshan Group are exposed. Zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical analysis were carried out to constrain its age [...] Read more.
Fozi Mountain National Geopark is located in Zhenghe County in the northern region of Fujian Province, where the volcanic rocks of the Zhaixia Formation of the Shimaoshan Group are exposed. Zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical analysis were carried out to constrain its age and tectonic environment. The results show that three zircon U-Pb dating samples have attained ages of 99.2 ± 1.0 Ma, 99.6 ± 0.8 Ma, and 99.7 ± 2.0 Ma. Volcanic rocks in the core scenic area of Fozi Mountain were formed during the Late Cretaceous period. Elemental analysis showed that these volcanic rocks were dominated by the shoshonite series. They include gray dacite porphyry, grayish-white breccia tuff, volcanic agglomerate, and gray tuffaceous sandstone. These rocks were characterized by high silicon, high alkali content, and rich potassium levels. Lu-Hf isotope analysis of zircons revealed that their εHf(t) values varied from −8.7 to −6.8. The corresponding TDM2 values were primarily distributed in the range of 1.71 Ga to 1.59 Ga. These findings indicated that the magma primarily originated from the partial melting of the Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement, accompanied by a small number of mantle-derived materials. Tectonic environment analysis indicated that these rocks were formed in the post-orogenic intraplate extensional environment, which was associated with the back-arc extension or lithospheric thinning caused by the subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian plate. The formation of these volcanic rocks was attributed to post-orogenic magmatism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology)
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20 pages, 7125 KiB  
Article
Distribution and Enrichment of Au, Hg, and Tl in the Lanmuchang Deposit, Guizhou, China
by Songtao Li, Jianzhong Liu, Yong Xia, Zepeng Wang, Chengfu Yang, Zhuojun Xie, Qinping Tan and Bingqiang Zhang
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060615 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Mineralization characterized by Au, Hg, and Tl enrichment is rare, and research on Au, Hg, and Tl mineralization is limited. The Lanmuchang Au–Hg–Tl deposit is located in the “Golden Triangle” of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi Provinces in China. In this study, we used [...] Read more.
Mineralization characterized by Au, Hg, and Tl enrichment is rare, and research on Au, Hg, and Tl mineralization is limited. The Lanmuchang Au–Hg–Tl deposit is located in the “Golden Triangle” of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi Provinces in China. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), and a Tescan integrated mineral analyzer (TIMA) to analyze the mineral composition and distribution of the different types of ores and identify the occurrence state and enrichment mechanism of ore-forming elements in the Lanmuchang deposit. The results show that the primary ore minerals in the Lanmuchang deposit are pyrite, cinnabar, and lorandite. Cinnabar is the primary carrier of Hg (>90%), and pyrite is the primary carrier of Tl (>60%). Gold, Hg, and Tl primarily occur as solid solutions in hydrothermal pyrite, whereas they primarily occur as nano-scale particles in diagenetic pyrite. The substitution of As for S in hydrothermal pyrite promotes Au enrichment. The coupled substitution of 2Fe2+ ⇔ Tl+ + As3+ may be a significant Tl incorporation mechanism and promotes the occurrence of Hg in pyrite. The As and Se contents and Cu/Au and Co/Ni ratios of the hydrothermal pyrite demonstrate that the ore-forming fluid was mostly in a low-temperature, low-salinity, almost-neutral pH, and nearly reducing environment. The results show that the mineralization of the Lanmuchang deposit is associated with the cooling, oxidation, water–rock interaction, and boiling processes of the ore-forming fluid(s). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium, Tellurium and Precious Metal Mineralogy)
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20 pages, 7369 KiB  
Article
Low-Temperature Thermochronology Records the Convergence between the Anatolide–Tauride Block and the Arabian Platform along the Southeast Anatolian Orogenic Belt
by Semih Gildir, Fatih Karaoğlan and Erhan Gülyüz
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060614 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 429
Abstract
SE Anatolia is witnessing the final stage of the Wilson Cycle, where a continental collision between the Tauride–Anatolide block and Arabian platform occurred, and a 1.5 km Eastern Tauride mountain chain formed. We present new low-temperature thermochronology (LTT) ages, including eight apatite fission [...] Read more.
SE Anatolia is witnessing the final stage of the Wilson Cycle, where a continental collision between the Tauride–Anatolide block and Arabian platform occurred, and a 1.5 km Eastern Tauride mountain chain formed. We present new low-temperature thermochronology (LTT) ages, including eight apatite fission track (AFT) and seven apatite and zircon U-Th-Sm/He (AHe, ZHe) ages, for the metamorphic rocks from the Nappe Zone of the Southeast Anatolian Orogenic Belt. The ZHe ages vary from 51.2 ± 0.7 Ma to 30.4 ± 0.6 Ma, the AFT ages range from 33.1 ± 1.6 Ma to 18.1 ± 0.9 Ma, and the AHe ages range from 23.6 ± 2.5 Ma to 6 ± 1.9 Ma. The LTT data show a continuous slow uplift of the region. However, the thermal modeling results suggest an Eocene and middle–late Miocene fast uplift of the region. Similar to our results, the LTT studies along the SAOB show that the vertical movements initiated during the Eocene period have continued in a steady-state regime to recent times. The Eocene epoch is identified by arc–back-arc setting in the region, whereas the Miocene epoch is marked by the continental collision. Within this tectonic framework, vertical movements on the overriding plate are controlled by both extensional and compressional tectonics. The LTT data obtained along the SAOB show fingerprints of thrust propagation from north to south. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal History Modeling of Low-Temperature Thermochronological Data)
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27 pages, 1617 KiB  
Review
Clay Minerals and Biopolymers in Film Design: Overview of Properties and Applications
by Pollyana Trigueiro, Juliane P. de L. Pereira, Mirelly G. Ferreira, Lucas B. Silva, Luan Neves and Ramón R. Peña-Garcia
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060613 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Research to replace petroleum-based plastics has been quite challenging. Currently, there is a lot of interest in biopolymers as an alternative. However, biopolymers do not have suitable mechanical properties when in film form, which limits their applications. To resolve this issue, clay minerals [...] Read more.
Research to replace petroleum-based plastics has been quite challenging. Currently, there is a lot of interest in biopolymers as an alternative. However, biopolymers do not have suitable mechanical properties when in film form, which limits their applications. To resolve this issue, clay minerals are being incorporated as a strategy. Clay minerals offer the films good barrier, thermal, rheological, optical, and mechanical properties. They can also work with other additives to promote antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. This brief review focuses on incorporating clay minerals with other nanofillers and bioactives to improve their physical, chemical, and functional characteristics. The synergy of these materials gives the films exceptional properties and makes them suitable for applications such as food coatings, packaging materials, dressings, and bandages for treating skin wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Clay-Based Materials)
21 pages, 5761 KiB  
Article
Mineralogy and Selenium Speciation Analysis of Early Cambrian Selenium-Rich Black Shale in Southern Shaanxi Province, China
by Caixia Feng, Shen Liu, Wenlei Song, Chenhui Hou and Yanhong Yang
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060612 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and an excess of or deficiency in Se is harmful to health. Research on the selenium enrichment zone began in the late 1970s in Shuang’an, Ziyang, southern Shaanxi Province. Naore village is [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and an excess of or deficiency in Se is harmful to health. Research on the selenium enrichment zone began in the late 1970s in Shuang’an, Ziyang, southern Shaanxi Province. Naore village is only one selenosis area in Shuang’an, Ziyang, China. Different scholars have conducted systematic studies on the occurrence of selenium, its organic geochemistry and biomarkers, and its content and enrichment patterns in this area. This study applied the TIMA (TESCAN integrated mineral analyzer) for the first time to conduct detailed mineralogical work. The minerals included quartz, carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), feldspar (plagioclase, albite, and orthoclase), biotite and muscovite, clay minerals (chlorite and kaolinite), hematite, pyrite, and accessory minerals (almandine, olivine, zircon, and apatite) in Naore village, Ziyang, Shaanxi Province. The ATi index (100 × apatite/(apatite + tourmaline)) is used to determine the source of heavy minerals and the degree of heavy minerals’ weathering. The content POS (100 × (pyroxene + olivine + spinel)/transparent heavy mineral) of olivine, pyroxene, and spinel in heavy minerals can reflect the contribution of basic and ultrabasic rocks in the source area. The ATi and POS indexes for the heavy minerals in the research area were 91.83~99.96 and 0.01~18.75, respectively, reflecting the abundance of volcanic rock material in their source. In addition, the migration, transformation, bioavailability, and toxicity of selenium in the environment are closely related to its species. The species of selenium in various selenium-rich areas (Naore, Wamiao, and Guanquan) mainly include unusable residues and organic forms, followed by humic-acid-bound selenium. The proportions of water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate-bound selenium are relatively small, and the proportion of Fe-Mn oxide-bound selenium is the lowest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium, Tellurium and Precious Metal Mineralogy)
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20 pages, 2190 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Feldspar and Quartz Nucleation Delay in a Hydrous Peraluminous Granitic Melt
by Maude Bilodeau and Don R. Baker
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060611 - 15 Jun 2024
Viewed by 291
Abstract
A modified model based on classical nucleation theory was applied to a natural hydrous peraluminous pegmatite composition and tested against crystallization experiments in order to further investigate the quantification of nucleation delay in felsic melts. Crystallization experiments were performed in a piston-cylinder apparatus [...] Read more.
A modified model based on classical nucleation theory was applied to a natural hydrous peraluminous pegmatite composition and tested against crystallization experiments in order to further investigate the quantification of nucleation delay in felsic melts. Crystallization experiments were performed in a piston-cylinder apparatus at 630 MPa and temperatures between 650 and 1000 °C for durations ranging from 0.3 to 211 h. Experimental run products were investigated by scanning electron microscopy paired with energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses of both crystalline and quenched liquid phases, the results of which were compared to an established theoretical nucleation delay model from the literature. The experiments showed good agreement (within a factor of 5) with the model for quartz, while it showed moderate agreement (within a factor of 10) with the model for sodic feldspar. Other crystals also nucleated, demonstrating abundant features of disequilibrium. Our research further demonstrates the potential of the model to predict nucleation delay, showing promising results for the quantification of the nucleation delay of quartz and feldspar in natural felsic melts, thus adding to previously published studies on hydrous, metaluminous, felsic melts and dry basaltic melts. Full article
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51 pages, 12244 KiB  
Article
Mineralogy and Origin of Vein Wolframite Mineralization from the Pohled Quarry, Havlíčkův Brod Ore District, Czech Republic: Interaction of Magmatic and Basinal Fluids
by Zdeněk Dolníček, Jana Ulmanová, Luboš Vrtiška, Karel Malý, Michaela Krejčí Kotlánová and Rostislav Koutňák
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060610 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 238
Abstract
Mineralogy and formation conditions were studied in a newly found vein wolframite mineralization, cutting migmatitized paragneisses in the exocontact of a small Carboniferous granite body in the Pohled quarry, Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The early stage of the rich [...] Read more.
Mineralogy and formation conditions were studied in a newly found vein wolframite mineralization, cutting migmatitized paragneisses in the exocontact of a small Carboniferous granite body in the Pohled quarry, Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The early stage of the rich mineral assemblage (36 mineral species) involves wolframite, columbite-group minerals, molybdenite, and scheelite hosted by quartz–muscovite–chlorite gangue, which was followed by base-metal sulfides in a quartz gangue, whereas the last stage included calcite gangue with fluorite and minor sulfides. The mineral assemblage points to the mobility of usually hardly soluble elements, including W, Sn, Zr, Nb, Th, Ti, Sc, Y, and REEs. A fluid inclusion study indicates a significant decrease in homogenization temperatures from 350–370 °C to less than 100 °C during vein formation. Fluids were aqueous, with a low salinity (0–12 wt. % NaCl eq.) and traces of CO2, N2, CH4, H2, and C2H6. The δ18O values of the fluids giving rise to quartz and scheelite are positive (min. 4‰–6‰ V-SMOW). The Eh and pH of the fluid also changed during evolution of the vein. Both wolframite and columbite-group minerals are anomalously enriched in Mg. We suggest that the origin of this distinct mineralization was related to the mixing of Mo,W-bearing granite-derived magmatic fluids with external basinal waters derived from contemporaneous freshwater (but episodically evaporated) piedmont basins. The basinal waters infiltrated into the subsurface along fractures formed in the extensional tectonic regime, and their circulation continued even after the ending of the activity of magmatic fluids. The studied wolframite mineralization represents the most complete record of the ‘hydrothermal’ history of a site adjacent to a cooling granite body in the study area. Moreover, there are broad similarities in the mineral assemblages, textures, and chemical compositions of individual minerals from other occurrences of wolframite mineralization around the Central Moldanubian Plutonic Complex, pointing to the genetic similarities of the Variscan wolframite-bearing veins in this area. Full article
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20 pages, 4455 KiB  
Article
Bulk and Surface Characterization of Distinct Hematite Morphology: Implications for Wettability and Flotation Response
by Lívia Marques Faustino, Belinda McFadzean, José Tadeu Gouvêa Junior and Laurindo de Salles Leal Filho
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060609 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 306
Abstract
To understand why hematite of different genesis behave diversely in flotation systems, this study assesses the flotation response at pH 5 of bulk (morphology, texture, Crystal Preferential Orientation (CPO)) plus interfacial (surface area, zeta potential, immersion enthalpy, contact angle, induction time) characteristics of [...] Read more.
To understand why hematite of different genesis behave diversely in flotation systems, this study assesses the flotation response at pH 5 of bulk (morphology, texture, Crystal Preferential Orientation (CPO)) plus interfacial (surface area, zeta potential, immersion enthalpy, contact angle, induction time) characteristics of species formed under distinct metamorphic conditions: low-strain deformation (Hematite-1) versus high-strain deformation (Hematite-2). Hematite-2 (predominantly composed of specular and lamellar morphologies) shows (001) CPO and exhibits fewer Fe sites on its surface that undergo doubly coordinated Fe-OH when exposed to moisture. This results in a less reactive surface associated with a less ordered adsorbed water layer than Hematite-1, which is predominantly composed of granular and sinuous hematite. Those characteristics lead to a naturally hydrophobic behavior characterized by the exothermic energy below the Critical Immersion Enthalpy (Himm < 200 mJ/m2), lower values of zeta potential due to attenuated dissociation of Fe-OH(surf), lower induction time (47 ms vs. 128 ms), higher contact angle (39° vs. 13°), and higher flotation recovery (21% vs. 12%) than Hematite-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy)
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16 pages, 4560 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Limestone Surface Impurities and Resulting Quicklime Quality
by Karin Sandström, Markus Carlborg, Matias Eriksson and Markus Broström
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060608 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 309
Abstract
Quicklime, rich in CaO(s), is generated by calcining limestone at high temperatures. Parallel-flow regenerative lime kilns are the most energy-effective industrial method available today. To prevent major disruptions in such kilns, a high raw material quality is necessary. Under some conditions, impurity-enriched material [...] Read more.
Quicklime, rich in CaO(s), is generated by calcining limestone at high temperatures. Parallel-flow regenerative lime kilns are the most energy-effective industrial method available today. To prevent major disruptions in such kilns, a high raw material quality is necessary. Under some conditions, impurity-enriched material may adhere to limestone pebbles and enter the kiln. In this study, limestone and corresponding quicklime were analyzed to evaluate the extent and composition of surface impurities and assess the effect on quicklime product quality, here defined as free CaO. This was performed by sampling and analyzing limestone, quarry clay, laboratory-produced quicklime, and industrially produced quicklime with XRF, SEM/EDX, and XRD; interpretations were supported by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. In the laboratory-produced quicklime, the surface impurities reacted with calcium forming Larnite, Gehlenite, Åkermanite and Merwinite, reducing the quicklime quality. The results showed that the limestone surface layer comprised 1.2 wt.-% of the total mass but possessed 4 wt.-% of the total impurities. The effect on industrially produced quicklime quality was lower; this indicated that the limestone surface impurities were removed while the material moved through the kiln. Multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations showed that the quarry clay was expected to be fully melted at 1170℃, possibly leading to operational problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Clays and Other Industrial Mineral Materials)
20 pages, 1304 KiB  
Review
Advances in Hydrometallurgical Gold Recovery through Cementation, Adsorption, Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction
by Jihye Kim, Rina Kim and Kenneth N. Han
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060607 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 388
Abstract
Hydrometallurgical gold recovery processes play a pivotal role in the gold mining industry, contributing to more than 90% of global gold production. Among the array of techniques available, the Merrill–Crowe process, adsorption, ion exchange, and solvent extraction are central in extracting gold from [...] Read more.
Hydrometallurgical gold recovery processes play a pivotal role in the gold mining industry, contributing to more than 90% of global gold production. Among the array of techniques available, the Merrill–Crowe process, adsorption, ion exchange, and solvent extraction are central in extracting gold from leach solutions. While the Merrill–Crowe process and gold complex adsorption onto activated carbon represent historical cornerstones, their inherent limitations have prompted the emergence of more recent innovations in ion exchange and solvent extraction, offering enhanced selectivity, control, and sustainability. The evolution of modern organic chemistry has significantly influenced the progress of ion exchange technology, mainly through the introduction of advanced polymer matrix synthetic resins. At the same time, novel solvents tailored to gold complex interactions have revitalized ion exchange and solvent extraction. Introducing ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents has also added a new dimension to efforts to improve gold extraction metallurgy. This paper reviews these cutting-edge developments and their potential to revolutionize the hydrometallurgical gold recovery process, addressing the pressing need for improved efficiency and environmental responsibility. Full article
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13 pages, 6065 KiB  
Article
The Formation of Calcium–Magnesium Carbonate Minerals Induced by Curvibacter sp. HJ-1 under Different Mg/Ca Molar Ratios
by Chonghong Zhang, Fuchun Li, Kai Yang and Jianrong Zhou
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060606 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Microbial mineralization of calcium–magnesium carbonate has been a hot research topic in the fields of geomicrobiology and engineering geology in the past decades. However, the formation and phase transition mechanism of calcium–magnesium carbonate polymorphs at different Mg/Ca ratios still need to be explored. [...] Read more.
Microbial mineralization of calcium–magnesium carbonate has been a hot research topic in the fields of geomicrobiology and engineering geology in the past decades. However, the formation and phase transition mechanism of calcium–magnesium carbonate polymorphs at different Mg/Ca ratios still need to be explored. In this study, microbial induced carbonate mineralization experiments were carried out for 50 days in culture medium with Mg/Ca molar ratios of 0, 1.5, and 3 under the action of Curvibacter sp. HJ-1. The roles of bacteria and the Mg/Ca ratio on the mineral formation and phase transition were investigated. Experimental results show that (1) strain HJ-1 could induce vaterite, aragonite, and magnesium calcite formation in culture media with different Mg/Ca molar ratios. The increased stability of the metastable phase suggests that bacterial extracellular secretions and Mg2+ ions inhibit the carbonate phase-transition process. (2) The morphology of bacteriological carbonate minerals and the formation mechanism of spherical minerals were different in Mg-free and Mg-containing media. (3) The increased Mg/Ca ratio in the culture medium has an influence on the formation and transformation of calcium–magnesium carbonate by controlling the metabolism of Curvibacter sp. HJ-1 and the activity of bacterial secretion. Full article
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23 pages, 2355 KiB  
Article
Diverse Behaviors of Feldspar Grains during Sandstone Diagenesis: Example from the Xujiahe Formation in the Western Sichuan Basin, China
by Yijiang Zhong, Keke Huang, Qing Zou, Shupeng Zhang and Liming Ye
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060605 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 242
Abstract
Feldspar alteration is among the most important processes in clastic rocks during diagenesis, but uncertainty remains about the factors that control feldspar diagenesis under subsurface conditions. Hence, the Upper Triassic Xujiahe formation of the Western Sichuan Basin were examined by an integrated petrographic, [...] Read more.
Feldspar alteration is among the most important processes in clastic rocks during diagenesis, but uncertainty remains about the factors that control feldspar diagenesis under subsurface conditions. Hence, the Upper Triassic Xujiahe formation of the Western Sichuan Basin were examined by an integrated petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical approach to unravel the causes and effects of feldspar diagenesis, with implication for mass transfer and openness of the geochemical system. The sandstones at various depths demonstrate three distinct, separate diagenetic behaviors of detrital feldspar within a single formation including (1) the complete dissolution of both plagioclase and K-feldspar in the upper member; (2) conservation of abundant detrital feldspar grains with minor albitization or overgrowths within the lower member of depths greater than 5 km; and (3) complete disappearance of K-feldspar within the uppermost horizons of the lower member, while plagioclase have survived in significant amounts. The exceptional disappearance of K-feldspar is the result of selective dissolution of K-feldspar during burial, accompanied by illite cementation and substantial K transfer at a scale of tens of meters. It is apparent that the clay diagenesis in the overlying mudstones, rather than porewater chemistry, is the major control of the reactivity of K-feldspar in adjacent deeply buried sandstones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology)
22 pages, 1795 KiB  
Article
Research on An Accurate Simulation Modeling and Charge Motion Quantitative Evaluation Method for Ball Mill in Confined Space
by Zixin Yin, Zujin Jin and Tongqing Li
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060604 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 245
Abstract
A ball mill is a type of complex grinding device. Having knowledge of its charge-load behavior is key to determining the operating conditions that provide the optimum mill throughput. An elaborate description of the charge movement inside the ball mill is essential. This [...] Read more.
A ball mill is a type of complex grinding device. Having knowledge of its charge-load behavior is key to determining the operating conditions that provide the optimum mill throughput. An elaborate description of the charge movement inside the ball mill is essential. This study focuses on a laboratory-scale ball mill and utilizes a discrete element simulation model to investigate the impact of mill speed and ball filling on charge-load behavior. Initially, the EDEM 2.7 (Engineering Discrete Element Method) software contact parameters were calibrated through heap-angle experiments. Subsequently, four charge-motion characteristic parameters were defined and analyzed based on Powell’s theory to understand the variations in charge-load behavior. This research proposes a theoretical calculation model for predicting power in a ball mill, highlighting the significance of the CoC (Center of Circulation) and CoM (Center of Mass) in reflecting changes in charge-load behavior. The theoretical model for mill-power prediction is effective and aligns well with the EDEM simulation and experimental results, providing valuable insights for optimizing large-scale ball mill structures and controlling charge motion during production. Full article
14 pages, 6154 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Lithium from Industrial Li-Containing Wastewater Using Fluidized-Bed Homogeneous Granulation Technology
by Van Giang Le, The Anh Luu, Huu Tuan Tran, Ngoc T. Bui, M. Mofijur, Minh Ky Nguyen, Xuan Thanh Bui, M. B. Bahari, Hoang Nhat Phong Vo, Chi Thanh Vu, Guo-Ping Chang Chien and Yao-Hui Huang
Minerals 2024, 14(6), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14060603 - 10 Jun 2024
Viewed by 525
Abstract
In this study, a novel fluidized-bed homogeneous granulation (FBHo-G) process was developed to recover lithium (Li) from industrial Li-impacted wastewater. Five important operational variables (i.e., temperatures, pH, [P]0/[Li]0 molar ratios, surface loadings, and up-flow velocities (Umf)) were selected [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel fluidized-bed homogeneous granulation (FBHo-G) process was developed to recover lithium (Li) from industrial Li-impacted wastewater. Five important operational variables (i.e., temperatures, pH, [P]0/[Li]0 molar ratios, surface loadings, and up-flow velocities (Umf)) were selected to optimize the Li recovery (TR%) and granulation ratio (GR%) efficiencies of the process. The optimal operational conditions were determined as the following: a temperature of 75 °C, pH of 11.5, [P]0/[Li]0 of 0.5, surface loading of 2.5 kg/m2·h, and Umf of 35.7 m/h). The TR% and GR% at optimal condition could be as much as 90%. The material characterization of the recovery pellet products showed that they were highly crystallized Li3PO4 (purity ~88.2%). The pellets had a round shape and smooth surface with an average size of 0.65 mm, so could easily be stored and transported. The high purity enables them to be further directly reused as raw materials for a wide range of industrial applications (e.g., in the synthesis of cathode materials). Our calculation shows that the FBHo-G process could recover up to 0.1845 kg of lithium per cubic meter of Li-containing wastewater, at a recovery rate of ~90%. A brief technoeconomic analysis shows that FBHG process had economic viability, with an estimate production cost of USD 26/kg Li removed, while the potential gained profit for selling lithium phosphate pellets could be up to USD 48 per the same volume of wastewater and the net profit up to USD 22/m3 Li treated. In all, fluidized-bed homogeneous granulation, a seedless one-step recovery process, opens a promising pathway toward a green and sustainable recycling industry for the recovery and application of the resource-limited lithium element from nonconventional water sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acid Mine Drainage: A Challenge or an Opportunity?)
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