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Open AccessArticle

Unraveling Sources and Climate Conditions Prevailing during the Deposition of Neoproterozoic Evaporites Using Coupled Chemistry and Boron Isotope Compositions (δ11B): The Example of the Salt Range, Punjab, Pakistan

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Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Science, Xining 810008, China
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Qinghai Provincial Key Laboratory of Geology and Environment of Salt Lakes, Xining 810008, China
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University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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Department of Earth Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan 15100, Pakistan
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State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
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Institute of Geology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir 13100, Pakistan
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State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430078, China
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GEOTOP/Earth and Atmosphere Sciences Department, UQAM, Montréal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Krzysztof Bukowski
Minerals 2021, 11(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020161
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 24 January 2021 / Accepted: 29 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry of Evaporites)
In this study, the ion concentrations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO42−, Br, NO3, and B3+) and boron isotope compositions (δ11B) of 34 halite and brines samples from the Neoproterozoic Salt Range Formation, Punjab, Pakistan were studied. Relation among B3+ vs. Mg2+, B3+ vs. SO42−, δ11B vs. B3+, and δ11B vs K+ were observed, they indicated that these elements originate from multiple sources and the end members were identified as seawater, B desorption from clays, and meteoric precipitation. Halite samples of the area under study displayed a Na-HCO3-type to Ca-Cl type sedimentary basin of deposition, on δ11B vs. 1/B plot. Molar ratios of B/Cl vs. δ11B revealed the addition of B in some of the studied samples from desorption of clay minerals. This type of diagenetic desorption of B from clays is the consequence of a stress driven mechanism, generated in the proximity of a decollement zone. Results confirm that the number of B stable isotopes that fractionate between the brine and the halite is low. The halite δ11B from the Salt Range Formation vary from +2.1 to +24.4‰, compared to +17.3 to +26.1‰ in the salt pool brines, and suggest that boron isotope compositions are controlled by the δ11B of the B sources. The positive relationship between the boron content and the corresponding δ11B indicates a higher salinity and drier paleoclimate conditions during the formation process, associated with a high evaporation rate in the Late Neoproterozoic time. Presence of elevated δ11B in the present study, demonstrate compatibility with other marine basins of the world, arising the need for further investigations to better characterize the 11B-enriching processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: halite; brine; boron isotopes; geochemistry; salt range formation halite; brine; boron isotopes; geochemistry; salt range formation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussain, S.A.; Han, F.-Q.; Ma, Z.; Hussain, A.; Mughal, M.S.; Han, J.; Alhassan, A.; Widory, D. Unraveling Sources and Climate Conditions Prevailing during the Deposition of Neoproterozoic Evaporites Using Coupled Chemistry and Boron Isotope Compositions (δ11B): The Example of the Salt Range, Punjab, Pakistan. Minerals 2021, 11, 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020161

AMA Style

Hussain SA, Han F-Q, Ma Z, Hussain A, Mughal MS, Han J, Alhassan A, Widory D. Unraveling Sources and Climate Conditions Prevailing during the Deposition of Neoproterozoic Evaporites Using Coupled Chemistry and Boron Isotope Compositions (δ11B): The Example of the Salt Range, Punjab, Pakistan. Minerals. 2021; 11(2):161. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020161

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hussain, Syed A.; Han, Feng-Qing; Ma, Zhe; Hussain, Amjad; Mughal, Muhammad S.; Han, Jibin; Alhassan, Abdullah; Widory, David. 2021. "Unraveling Sources and Climate Conditions Prevailing during the Deposition of Neoproterozoic Evaporites Using Coupled Chemistry and Boron Isotope Compositions (δ11B): The Example of the Salt Range, Punjab, Pakistan" Minerals 11, no. 2: 161. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020161

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