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Article

Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Groundwater from the Gran Canaria Island (Spain)

Instituto Universitario de Estudios Ambientales y Recursos Naturales (i-UNAT), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2021, 13(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030262
Received: 2 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater and Contaminant Transport)
The presence of pharmaceutical compounds in the whole environment is a growing concern. These compounds might be present in the effluents of wastewater treatment plants and, hence, irrigation with treated sewage may be a source of groundwater pollution. The volcanic aquifer that lies NE of Gran Canaria (Spain) was studied to address the relationship of the occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds and a golf course that has been irrigated with regenerated water since 1973. Of the 14 analyzed groundwater samples, five wells were chosen to perform annual monitoring. Irrigation water and soil leachate were also evaluated. The target analytes were atenolol, metamizole, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, nicotine, permethrin, caffeine, and their metabolite paraxanthine. The environmental risk is limited as the concentrations of the pharmaceuticals measured in the sampled wells were always below 60 ng·L−1 (lower than the detected caffeine and nicotine concentrations). Wide variations for the same wells were measured among sampling campaigns, and also among the different wells. The study points to the importance of sample conservation during transport and the need to perform analyses immediately, or to follow an in-situ extraction procedure to carry concentrated samples under better conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: emerging contaminants; volcanic aquifer; reclaimed water reuse; irrigation; Gran Canaria emerging contaminants; volcanic aquifer; reclaimed water reuse; irrigation; Gran Canaria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Montesdeoca-Esponda, S.; Palacios-Díaz, M.d.P.; Estévez, E.; Sosa-Ferrera, Z.; Santana-Rodríguez, J.J.; Cabrera, M.d.C. Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Groundwater from the Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Water 2021, 13, 262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030262

AMA Style

Montesdeoca-Esponda S, Palacios-Díaz MdP, Estévez E, Sosa-Ferrera Z, Santana-Rodríguez JJ, Cabrera MdC. Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Groundwater from the Gran Canaria Island (Spain). Water. 2021; 13(3):262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030262

Chicago/Turabian Style

Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah, María d.P. Palacios-Díaz, Esmeralda Estévez, Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera, José J. Santana-Rodríguez, and María d.C. Cabrera 2021. "Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Groundwater from the Gran Canaria Island (Spain)" Water 13, no. 3: 262. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13030262

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